Sediment Grab Samples from the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington coast from U.S. Geological Survey field activity 1998-014-FA

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Sediment Grab Samples from the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington coast from U.S. Geological Survey field activity 1998-014-FA
Abstract:
Two 21-day field operations were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the estuaries and on the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington coast. These cruises aboard the R/V Corliss were run in order to generate reconnaissance maps of the seafloor geology and the shallow subsurface stratigraphy using sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection mapping techniques. The 1998 cruise also collected sediment grab samples, bottom photographs, and video images to verify the sidescan-sonar imagery and to document the seafloor geology. The combination of these data with previously collected sediment sample data (Robert, 1974; Nittrouer, 1978; and Smith et. al., 1980) has been used to define the extent and lithology of shelf sediments associated with the Columbia River littoral cell. This work is one component of a larger project studying the erosion of the Washington Oregon coasts and is being coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology. The reasons for collecting these data are to provide a regional synthesis of the offshore geology for this project and to support a wide variety of management decisions and to provide a basis for further process-oriented investigations.
Supplemental_Information:
Roberts, R.W., 1974, Marine sedimentological data of the Washington continental shelf: University of Washington, Department of Oceanography Special Report 57, 129p. Nittrouer, C.A., 1978, The process of detrital sediment accumulation in a continental shelf environment: an examination of the Washington shelf: PhD Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 243p.
Smith, J.M., Messmer, L.W., Phipps, J.B., Samuelson, D.F., and Schermer, E.D., 1980, Grays Harbor and Chehalis River improvements to navigation environmental studies - Grays Harbor ocean disposal study: literature review and preliminary benthic sampling: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Internal Report.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Twichell, David C., 2000, Sediment Grab Samples from the inner continental shelf off the northern Oregon and southern Washington coast from U.S. Geological Survey field activity 1998-014-FA: Open-File Report 00-167, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Twichell, David C., Cross, VeeAnn A., and Parolski, Kenneth F., 2000, Sidescan-sonar Imagery, Surface Sediment Samples, and Surficial Geologic Interpretation of the Southwestern Washington Inner Continental Shelf Based on Data Collected During Corliss Cruises 97007 and 98014: Open-File Report 00-167, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.500000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -123.080000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: +47.350000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: +45.900000
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 28-Aug-1998
    Ending_Date: 16-Sep-1998
    Currentness_Reference:
    1998
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.00018. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.00026. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Depth_System_Definition:
      Depth_Datum_Name: Local surface
      Depth_Resolution: 2
      Depth_Distance_Units: Meters
      Depth_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    grabsamp.dbf
    ArcView shapefile attribute table (Source: ESRI)
    Long
    Longitude coordinate of sample recorded in decimal degrees. (Source: Data processor - VeeAnn A. Cross)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-124.3323
    Maximum:-123.9635
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Lat
    Latitude coordinate of sample recorded in decimal degrees. (Source: Data processor - VeeAnn A. Cross)
    Range of values
    Minimum:46.0501
    Maximum:47.1894
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Samp_id
    Sediment sample identification label assigned in the published literature. (Source: Sample collector) character field
    Gravel
    Percentage of total sediment sample larger than or equal to -1 phi (>= 2.0 mm) (Source: Based on the Udden-Wentworth sediment classification scale, with the phi scale devised by Krumbein.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:74.85
    Units:Percentage of total sample.
    Sand
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of less than -1 phi (2.0 mm) to 4.0 phi (62.5 µm). (Source: Based on the Udden-Wentworth sediment classification scale, with the phi scale devised by Krumbein.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:15.09
    Maximum:99.66
    Silt
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of less than 4 phi (62.5 µm) to 8.0 phi (3.91 µm). (Source: Based on the Udden-Wentworth sediment classification scale, with the phi scale devised by Krumbein.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.10
    Maximum:73.36
    Clay
    Percentage of total sediment sample less than 8 phi (3.91 µm). (Source: Based on the Udden-Wentworth sediment classification scale, with the phi scale devised by Krumbein.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:11.55
    Siltclay
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the silt plus clay fraction i.e. less than 4 phi (62.5 µm). (Source: User defined based on the Udden-Wentworth sediment classification scheme.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.12
    Maximum:84.91
    Depth_m
    Distance from the sea surface to the sea floor where the sediment sample was taken - measured in meters. (Source: User defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:73.00
    Units:meters
    Class
    gravel>10%--- any sample that has more than 10% gravel sand---sample has > 75% sand but < 10% gravel
    sandy_silt---sample has 50-75% silt, 20-50% sand, < 20% clay
    silty_sand---sample has 50-75% sand, 20-50% silt, < 20% clay
    no_sample--- no sediment sample was colletected, but this location is retained because either seafloor video or photos were taken. (Source: User defined based on Udden-Wentworth and modified Shepard classification scheme.) character field
    Median
    Computed median phi of the sediment sample derived using method of moments statistics (Folk, 1974). (Source: Computed - user defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-2.21
    Maximum:5.34
    Units:phi
    Mean
    Computed mean phi of the sediment sample derived using method of moments statistics (Folk, 1974). (Source: Computed - user defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.97
    Maximum:5.41
    Units:phi
    Stddev
    Computed standard deviation of the sediment sample derived using method of moments statistics (Folk, 1974). (Source: Computed - user defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.24
    Maximum:2.11
    Skew
    Computed skewness of the sediment sample derived using method of moments statistics (Folk, 1974). (Source: Computed - user defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.64
    Maximum:8.85
    Kurt
    Computed kurtosis of the sediment sample derived using method of moments statistics (Folk, 1974). (Source: Computed - user defined.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.83
    Maximum:364.37
    Phi11
    Percentage of total sediment sample < 0.97 µm (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:1.56
    Phi10
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 1.95 µm > x > 0.97 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:4.14
    Phi9
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 3.91 µm >x > 1.95 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:5.85
    Phi8
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 7.81µm > x > 3.91 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:8.50
    Phi7
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 15.63 µm > x > 7.81 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:18.88
    Phi6
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 31.25 µm > x > 15.63 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:21.38
    Phi5
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 62.5 µm > x > 31.25 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.04
    Maximum:41.91
    Phi4_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 74.3 µm > x > 62.5 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:25.85
    Phi3_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 88.4 µm > x > 74.3 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.03
    Maximum:40.73
    Phi3_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 105.1 µm > x > 88.4 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02
    Maximum:32.27
    Phi3_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 125.0 µm > x > 105.1 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:27.35
    Phi3_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 148.7 µm > x > 125.0 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.16
    Maximum:57.99
    Phi2_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 176.8 µm > x > 148.7 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.35
    Maximum:40.74
    Phi2_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 210.2 µm > x > 176.8 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.22
    Maximum:20.31
    Phi2_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 250.0 µm > x > 210.2 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.07
    Maximum:27.46
    Phi2_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 297.3 µm > x > 250.0 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.05
    Maximum:22.91
    Phi1_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 353.6 µm > x > 297.3 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:9.71
    Phi1_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 420.4 µm > x > 353.6 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:4.30
    Phi1_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 500.0 µm > x > 420.4 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:3.33
    Phi1_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 594.6 µm > x > 500.0 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.01
    Maximum:4.93
    Phi0_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 707.1 µm > x > 594.6 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:5.69
    Phi0_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 840.9 µm > x > 707.1 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:10.80
    Phi0_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 1.0 mm > x > 840.9 µm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:11.11
    Phi0_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 1.19 mm > x > 1 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:12.60
    Phi_0_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 1.41 mm > x > 1.19 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:13.51
    Phi_0_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 1.68 mm > x > 1.41 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:10.33
    Phi_0_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 2.0 mm > x > 1.68 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:8.80
    Phi_1_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 2.38 mm > x > 2.0 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:4.41
    Phi_1_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 2.83 mm > x > 2.38 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:6.26
    Phi_1_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 3.36 mm > x > 2.83 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:5.19
    Phi_1_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 4.0 mm > x > 3.36 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:5.79
    Phi_2_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 4.76 mm > x > 4.0 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:4.09
    Phi_2_25
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 5.66 mm > x > 4.76 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:5.27
    Phi_2_50
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 6.73 mm > x > 5.66 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:6.57
    Phi_2_75
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 8.0 mm > x > 6.73 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:8.31
    Phi_3_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample that falls in the range of 16.0 mm > x > 8.0 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:24.10
    Phi_4_00
    Percentage of total sediment sample is > 16.0 mm. (Source: User defined)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00
    Maximum:7.69
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    In order to convert from phi to mm, the following equation can be used: mm = 2-(phi) PHI MM
    11.00 0.000488281
    10.00 0.000976563
    9.00 0.001953125
    8.00 0.00390625
    7.00 0.0078125
    6.00 0.015625
    5.00 0.03125
    4.00 0.0625
    3.75 0.074325445
    3.50 0.088388348
    3.25 0.105112052
    3.00 0.125
    2.75 0.148650889
    2.50 0.176776695
    2.25 0.210224104
    2.00 0.25
    1.75 0.297301779
    1.50 0.353553391
    1.25 0.420448208
    1.00 0.5
    0.75 0.594603558
    0.50 0.707106781
    0.25 0.840896415
    0.00 1.0
    -0.25 1.189207115
    -0.50 1.414213562
    -0.75 1.681792831
    -1.00 2.0
    -1.25 2.37841423
    -1.50 2.828427125
    -1.75 3.363585661
    -2.00 4.0
    -2.25 4.75682846
    -2.50 5.656854249
    -2.75 6.727171322
    -3.00 8.0
    -4.00 16.0
    A value of 9999 is reserved for a nodata value. If any attribute has a value of 9999, it indicates the particular attribute information is unavailable.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Wentworth , C.K., 1929, Method of computing mechanical composition types in sediments: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v.40, p. 771-790.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Krumbein, W.C., 1934, Size frequency distributions of sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 4, p. 65-77.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Shepard, F.P., 1954, Nomenclature based on sand-silt-clay ratios: Journal Sedimentary Petrology, v.24, p.151-158.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Folk, R.L., 1974, The petrology of sedimentary rocks: Austin, Tex., Hemphill Publishing Co., 182 p.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • David C. Twichell
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    David C. Twichell
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Field Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dtwichell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This GIS overlay contains sediment sample locations and analyses information collected aboard the R/V Corliss in 1998.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1998 (process 1 of 5)
    The sediment sample locations and associated sample identification were logged shipboard. Sediment analyses were performed in the USGS Woods Hole sediment lab. This analyses information was then joined to the sediment sample location in ArcInfo. The data were then converted to ArcView shapefiles. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Field Center
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 31-Mar-2017 (process 2 of 5)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The original metadata was available in HTML only, so had to be reformatted. The citation in the identification section was completely redone, including adding links to the data and larger work citation. Added ISO 19115 Topic Category keywords. The standard order process section in the distribution was modified to include the link to the data. The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 3 of 5)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 4 of 5)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 5 of 5)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    These navigational points actually represent the ship's position. No instrumentation was on board to give the sediment sampler's position while on the seafloor. However, most of the samples were taken in fairly shallow water, therefore the potential for ship offset due to wire angle is minimized.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Although depth measurements were taken with an Odem fathometer, the criteria for taking these measurements is not particularly strict. A rough estimate of vertical accuracy is +/- 1 meter.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All sediment samples acquired on the cruise CRLS98014 are presented in this dataset.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Each sediment sample was analyzed using the same techniques, therefore highly consistent.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey must be referenced as the originator of the dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Nancy Soderberg
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Data Librarian
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Field Center
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2313 (FAX)
    nsoderberg@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM Open-File Report
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Although all data published on this CD-ROM have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and/or the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of this data, software, or related materials.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This interpretation is available in ArcView shapefile format. The user must have ArcView, Arc Explorer, or another GIS package capable of importing and reading these data.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
VeeAnn A. Cross
U.S. Geological Survey
Marine Geologist
U.S. Geological Survey
Woods Hole Field Center
384 Woods Hole Rd
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2000-167/grabsamp_meta.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:16 2021