4 meter composite sidescan sonar mosaic of the New York Bight Apex (APEX_OF.TIF)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
4 meter composite sidescan sonar mosaic of the New York Bight Apex (APEX_OF.TIF)
Abstract:
In 1995, the USGS, in cooperation with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, began a program designed to generate reconnaissance maps of the sea floor offshore of the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area, one of the most populated coastal regions within the United States. The goal of this mapping program is to provide a regional synthesis of the sea-floor environment, including a description of sedimentary environments, sediment texture, sea-floor morphology, geologic history, and the geometry and structure of the Quaternary strata. This mapping effort differs from previous studies of these area by obtaining digital, sidescan-sonar images that cover 100 percent of the sea floor. The sidescan-sonar data were digitally mosaicked to provide a base suitable for use in the geographic information system (GIS) of the New York Bight region.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2000, 4 meter composite sidescan sonar mosaic of the New York Bight Apex (APEX_OF.TIF): Open-File Report 02-152, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Schwab, William C., Denny, Jane F., Foster, David S., Lotto, Linda L., Allison, Mead A., Uchupi, Elazar, Swift, B. Ann, Danforth, William W., Thieler, E. Robert, and Butman, Bradford, 2002, High-Resolution Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the New York Bight Continental Shelf: Open-File Report 02-152, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.288380
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.190715
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.648632
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.150426
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1995
    Ending_Date: 1998
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 13500 x 23100 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 18
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 4.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 4.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), began a program to generate reconnaissance maps of the sea floor offshore of the New York - New Jersey metropolitan area and within the southern Long Island nearshore area. Our methods include high-resolution sidescan sonar and subbottom profiling techniques, along with surface grab and vibracore sampling to verify the geophysical interpretations. The goal of the investigation is to provide a regional synthesis of the sea-floor environment, to determine regional-scale availability of sand as a resource for beach nourishment programs, and to investigate the role that inner-shelf morphology and geologic framework have in the evolution of the coastal region within the New York Bight Apex and southern Long Island. Maps derived from interpretation of the subbottom profiles show information on the geometry and distribution of the Quaternary sediments and the underlying coastal-plain unconformity. This seismic stratigraphy yields a regional framework on which explanations of present (and past) sediment movement, dispersal, and erosion processes are based.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Data Archive - SEAX95007 (source 1 of 4)
    Denny, Jane F, and Schwab, William C., 1999, Archive of sidescan-sonar data and Differential Geographic Positioning System navigation data collected during USGS cruise Seax95007, 8 May - 24 May 1995.: Open-File Report 99-356, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    These publications are not online. The data would need to be acquired from Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center.
    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD
    Source_Contribution:
    These are the raw QMIPS sidescan-sonar data that were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic.
    Data Archive - ALPH98013 (source 2 of 4)
    Denny, Jane F, Schwab, William C., Danforth, William W., O'Brien, Thomas F., Nichols, Dave S., and Irwin, Barry, 2000, Archive of sidescan-sonar data and Differential Geographic Positioning System navigation data collected during USGS cruise ALPH98013, September10-23, 1998.: Open-File Report 98-590, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    These publications are not online. The data would need to be acquired from Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center.
    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD
    Source_Contribution:
    These are the raw QMIPS sidescan-sonar data that were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic.
    Data Archive - SEAX97032 (source 3 of 4)
    Hammar-Klose, Erika, Hill, Jenna, and Schwab, William C., 2002, Archive of sidescan-sonar data and Differential Geographic Positioning System navigation data collected during USGS cruise DIAN97032, September 25 - October 19, 1997.: Open-File Report 99-356, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    These publications are not online. The data would need to be acquired from Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center.
    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD
    Source_Contribution:
    These are the raw QMIPS sidescan-sonar data that were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic.
    Data Archive - SEAX96007 (source 4 of 4)
    Hill, Jenna, Schwab, William C., and Danforth, William, 2000, Archive of sidescan-sonar data and Differential Geographic Positioning System navigation data collected during USGS cruise Seax96004, New York Bight, 1 May - 9 June 1996.: Open-File Report 00-153, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Reston, VA.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Schwab, William C., Denny, Jane F., Foster, David S., Lotto, Linda L., Allison, Mead A., Uchupi, Elazar, Swift, B. Ann, Danforth, William W., Thieler, E. Robert, and Butman, Bradford, 2002, High-Resolution Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the New York Bight Continental Shelf: Open-File Report 02-152, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD
    Source_Contribution:
    These are the raw QMIPS sidescan-sonar data that were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 1999 (process 1 of 8)
    The sidescan-sonar data were acquired with a Datasonics SIS 1000 CHIRP sonar system, which operates in a frequency range of 100 - 120 kHz. The sidescan-sonar imagery of the New York Bight region is comprised of data acquired on seven geophysical cruises operated by the USGS during 1995 - 1998. All sidescan-sonar data were logged digitally at a sample rate resulting in a 0.18-m pixel size in the across-track direction and approximately 0.14-m in the along-track direction following the methodology outlined in Danforth and others (1991). A median filtering routine (Malinverno and others, 1990) was applied to the sidescan-sonar data to remove speckle noise, resulting in a 0.73-m pixel size. The data for each survey were further processed and digitally mosaicked using PCI Geomatica Software and procedures described in Danforth and others (1991), Danforth (1997), and Paskevich (1992) resulting in an enhanced, geographically correct, sidescan-sonar mosaic with 4 meters/pixel resolution. The seven individual images were then mosaicked to form one composite sidescan-sonar image for the New York Bight region. The composite mosaic has a resolution of 16 meters/pixel. The composite mosaic was exported as a TIFF image, with an associated ESRI world file. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 2000 (process 2 of 8)
    The sidescan-sonar image was clipped to the extent of the 1995 and 1996 geophysical surveys using the GRIDCLIP script within ArcView 3.2. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 2000 (process 3 of 8)
    The TIFF image (sonar.tif) was compressed using LizardTech, MrSID GeoSpatial Encoder 1.3.1. This software compresses the image at a specified ratio, which is 20:1 by default. An associated sdw file accompanies the .sid file. The .sdw is an ESRI world file for the given .sid image file. In order to view these data within ArcView, the MrSID Image Support extension must be loaded. Once, the extension is loaded, the .sid image file can be loaded into ArcView as an Image. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 13-Apr-2016 (process 4 of 8)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Reformatted the source contribution information - adding the information that the data are not available online. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 30-Jan-2018 (process 5 of 8)
    An error was fixed in one of the originator names. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 8)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    These data are internally consistent and accurate.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    DGPS is assumed to be accurate within 1-2 meters. Standard GPS is assumed accurate within 5-10 meters. 99% of the positional data is DGPS. Unless noted, all GPS/DGPS data is referenced to WGS84 (NAD83). Slant-range distance is recorded between the sidescan-sonar tow vehicle and a sidemount rigged with an acoustic transponder. Offset between the sidemount and GPS antennae is measured. Basic trigonomic calculations use the slant-range offset to calculate a 'fish' (tow-vehicle) navigation. An assumption in these calculations is that the tow-vehicle is traveling directly behind the vessel; movement to port or starboard is not accounted for within 'fish' navigation. Thus, the horizontal accuracy of the sidescan-sonar tow-vehicle is +/- 15 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are complete.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    These data are logically consistent; they were acquired with a Datasoncis SIS-1000 sidescan-sonar system, and processed following an identical procedure.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Jane F. Denny
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although these data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey as to the accuracy of the data. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a GeoTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Jane F. Denny
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
USA

(508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2002-152/apex_of.tif.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:17 2021