1 meter resolution sidescan sonar image of data acquired during the U.S. Geological Survey Geophysical Surveys 02031 of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September, 2002 (BEARLAKE.TIF, UTM)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
1 meter resolution sidescan sonar image of data acquired during the U.S. Geological Survey Geophysical Surveys 02031 of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September, 2002 (BEARLAKE.TIF, UTM)
Abstract:
Bear Lake is a tectonic lake that has existed for at least several hundred thousand years. The lake basin is a relatively simple half graben, a spoon-shaped depression tilted toward the main fault on the east side of the lake. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with researchers from several universities, has been studying the sediments of Bear Lake since 1996. The general purpose of this effort is to reconstruct past limnological conditions and regional climate on a range of timescales, from hundreds of years to hundreds of thousands of years. This research relates to a variety of human concerns, including water usage in the Bear River basin. Past work has included several coring operations, a seismic-reflection survey, sediment-trap deployments, a barge-mounted drilling operation with the GLAD800 drill rig, and a variety of other studies. The objectives of the September, 2002 operations, preliminarily reported here, were (1) to compile a detailed bathymetric map of the lake using swath-mapping techniques, in order to provide baseline data for a variety of applications and studies, and (2) to complete a sidescan-sonar survey of the lake, providing a nearly complete acoustic image of the lake floor. Limited amounts of subbottom acoustic-reflection data (CHIRP) were also collected, along with samples of lake-floor sediments representative of different kinds of backscatter patterns. These surveys followed an earlier subbottom acoustic-reflection survey (1997), using boomer and 3.5 kHz systems (S. M. Colman, unpublished data).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2003, 1 meter resolution sidescan sonar image of data acquired during the U.S. Geological Survey Geophysical Surveys 02031 of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September, 2002 (BEARLAKE.TIF, UTM): Open-File Report 03-150, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, J.F., and Colman, S.M, 2003, Geophysical Surveys of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, September, 2002 - Sidescan-sonar Mosaic: Open-File Report 03-150, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -111.252928
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -111.17
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.109
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.844
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 04-Sep-2002
    Ending_Date: 16-Sep-2002
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 29500 x 13500 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 12
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -111.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: +00.000000
      False_Easting: 500000
      False_Northing: 0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 500000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 400000
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data represent the first sidescan-sonar survey of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. This survey covered 100 percent of the lake floor below 5 meter water depth.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 16-Sep-2003 (process 1 of 5)
    The sidescan-sonar data were acquired with a 100 kHz Edgetech sidescan-sonar system. All sidescan-sonar data were logged digitally at a sample rate resulting in a 0.18-m pixel size in the across-track direction and approximately 0.14-m in the along-track direction following the methodology outlined in Danforth and others (1991). A median filtering routine (Malinverno and others, 1990) was applied to the sidescan-sonar data to remove speckle noise, resulting in a 0.73-m pixel size. The data for each survey were further processed and digitally mosaicked using PCI Geomatica Software and procedures described in Danforth and others (1991), Danforth (1997), and Paskevich (1992) resulting in an enhanced, geographically correct, sidescan-sonar mosaic with 1 meter/pixel resolution. The composite mosaic was exported as a TIFF image, with an associated ESRI world file. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 13-Jul-2016 (process 2 of 5)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Minor modifications were made to the cross-references to meet the standard. Additionally, online links were added to some of the cross-references. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 3 of 5)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 4 of 5)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 5 of 5)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Danforth, W.W., 1997, Xsonar/ShowImage: A complete system for rapid sidescan-sonar processing and display: Open-File Report 97-686, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 77 p.
    Danforth, W.W., O'Brien, T.F., and Schwab, W.C., 1991, USGS Image processing system: near real-time mosaicking of high-resolution sidescan-sonar data: Sea Technology Vol 1, p.54-59.

    Malinverno, A., Edwards, M., and Ryan, W.B.F., 1990, Processing of SeaMARC swath sonar data: Journal of Ocean Engineering v.15, p.14-23.

    Paskevich, V., 1992, Digital mapping of sidescan-sonar data with the Woods Hole Image Processing System software: Open-File Report 92-536, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 87 p.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    These data are internally consistent and accurate.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    WAAS is assumed to be accurate within 1-2 meters. Standard GPS is assumed accurate within 5-10 meters. All data were recorded using the WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) navigation. All WAAS data are referenced to WGS84 datum. Slant-range distance was assumed to be negligable; the tow-fish was flown at a static height adjacent to the boat.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These data are complete.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    These data are logically consistent; they were acquired with an Edgetech DF-1000 sidescan-sonar system, and processed following an identical procedure.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Altough this data set and its lineage have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and/or it's related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no resposibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related items. Users must assume resposibility for the proper use of this data. This data should not be used at resolutions for which it is not intended. This data has no been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards, or the North American Strigraphic code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a GEOTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GEOTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Jane F. Denny
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
USA

(508) 548-8700 x2311 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2003-150/bearlake.tif.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:18 2021