John Day Reservoir sediment sample locations and analyses - 2002

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
John Day Reservoir sediment sample locations and analyses - 2002
Abstract:
A two-week field operation was conducted in the John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River to image the floor of the pool, to measure the distribution and thickness of post-impoundment sediment, and to verify these geophysical data with video photography and bottom sediment samples. The field program was a cooperative effort between the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the Geologic Division and the USGS Columbia River Research Laboratory of the Biological Resources Division. The data collection was completed aboard the R/V ESTERO during September 13-27, 2000. The interest in sediment accumulation in the reservoir was two-fold. First, it was unknown how effective this reservoir was as a sediment trap to material that otherwise would have been transported down-river to the estuary and eventually to the ocean. The recent erosion of beaches along the Washington coast has been attributed to a decreased contribution of sediment from the Columbia River to the coastal system due to the damming of the river. Second, sediment accumulation on the floors of reservoirs along the Columbia River has been suggested to be diminishing salmon spawning grounds. The extent of changes in habitat since construction of the John Day Dam, however, had not been documented. Common data sets were needed to address both of these questions, and for these reasons this geophysical and sampling program was undertaken.
Supplemental_Information:
For more information about the field activity, see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2000-030-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Twichell, David C., and Cross, VeeAnn A., 2004, John Day Reservoir sediment sample locations and analyses - 2002: Open-File Report 2004-1014, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cross, VeeAnn A., and Twichell, David C., 2004, Geophysical, Sedimentologic, and Photographic Data from the John Day Reservoir, Washington and Oregon: Data Archive and Preliminary Discussion: Open-File Report 2004-1014, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -119.813167
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -119.376450
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.923000
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.843100
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 18-Apr-2002
    Ending_Date: 24-Apr-2002
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (47)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    jd2002_anal
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    SAMPLE_ID
    Identification representing the sediment sample number. (Source: USGS - Cook, WA.) character set
    LATITUDE
    Latitude fix for the location of the sediment sample. (Source: Software generated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:45.843100
    Maximum:45.923000
    Units:decimal degrees
    LONGITUDE
    Longitude fix for the location of the sediment sample. (Source: Software generated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-119.813167
    Maximum:-119.376450
    Units:decimal degrees
    DEPTH_M
    Water depth where the sample was acquired. (Source: Software generated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3
    Maximum:31
    Units:meters
    DESCRIPTIO
    Description of the video image. (Source: Dave Twichell) character set
    IMAGE
    Prefix portion of the name of the image. (Source: Dave Twichell) character set
    WT_G_
    Weight of sample in grams. (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:13.9435
    Maximum:957.31
    Units:grams
    SAND
    Percentage of sand in sample (Source: scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:7
    Units:percent
    GRVL
    Percentage of gravel in sample (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    SILT
    Percentage of silt in sample (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:8
    Units:percent
    CLAY
    Percentage of clay in sample (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    TOTAL
    Sum of the percentages of sand, silt, clay, and gravel (Source: Scientist)
    ValueDefinition
    100percent
    CLASS
    Lithologic classification of the sediments. (Source: Based on Folk, 1980.) character set
    MEDIAN
    Median of the grain size distribution (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-5.5
    Maximum:6.55
    Units:phi
    MEAN
    Mean of the grain size distribution (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-5.5
    Maximum:6.45
    Units:phi
    STDEV
    Standard deviation of the grain size distribution (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-0.08
    Maximum:4.62
    Units:phi
    SKEW
    Skewness of the grain size distribution (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-4217
    Maximum:123907.67
    KURT
    Kurtosis of the grain size distribution (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-448707.94
    Maximum:63283403.04
    M1PHI
    First mode (particle size that occurs the most number of times) in phi units (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-5.5
    Maximum:3.5
    Units:phi
    M1FRQ
    Modal strength of the first mode in percent. (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    M2PHI
    Second mode in phi units (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:phi
    M2FRQ
    Modal strength of the second mode in percent (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    M3PHI
    Third mode in phi units (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:6
    Units:phi
    M3FRQ
    Modal strength of the third mode in percent (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:8
    Units:percent
    MODES
    Number of modes (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3
    CFP11
    Cumulative frequency of the 11 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    ValueDefinition
    100percent
    CFP10
    Cumulative frequency of the 10 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:97
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP9
    Cumulative frequency of the 9 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:86
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP8
    Cumulative frequency of the 8 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:70
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP7
    Cumulative frequency of the 7 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:54
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP6
    Cumulative frequency of the 6 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:45
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP5
    Cumulative frequency of the 5 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:32
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP4
    Cumulative frequency of the 4 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP3
    Cumulative frequency of the 3 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP2
    Cumulative frequency of the 2 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP1
    Cumulative frequency of the 1 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFP0
    Cumulative frequency of the 0 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFPM1
    Cumulative frequency of the minus 1 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFPM2
    Cumulative frequency of the minus 2 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFPM3
    Cumulative frequency of the minus 3 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFPM4
    Cumulative frequency of the minus 4 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    CFPM5
    Cumulative frequency of the minus 5 phi fraction (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    FP11
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 11 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.5 microns, but less than 0.001 mm (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:3
    Units:percent
    FP10
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 10 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.001 mm, but less than 0.002 mm; clay (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:6
    Units:percent
    FP9
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 9 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.002 mm, but less than 0.004 mm; clay (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    FP8
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 8 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.004 mm, but less than 0.008 mm; very fine silt (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    FP7
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 7 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.008 mm, but less than 0.016 mm; fine silt (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:8
    Units:percent
    FP6
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 6 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.016 mm, but less than 0.031 mm; medium silt (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:7
    Units:percent
    FP5
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 5 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.031 mm, but less than 0.0625 mm; coarse silt (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    FP4
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 4 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.0625 mm, but less than 0.125 mm; very fine sand (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9
    Units:percent
    FP3
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 3 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.125 mm, but less than 0.25 mm; fine sand (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:6
    Units:percent
    FP2
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 2 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.25 mm, but less than 0.5 mm; medium sand (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:8
    Units:percent
    FP1
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 1 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 0.5 mm, but less than 1 mm; coarse sand (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:2
    Units:percent
    FP0
    Frequency percent of the sample in the 0 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 1 mm, but less than 2 mm; very coarse sand (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:5
    Units:percent
    FPM1
    Frequency percent of the sample in the -1 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 2 mm, but less than 4 mm; very fine pebbles (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:8
    Units:percent
    FPM2
    Frequency percent of the sample in the -2 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 4 mm, but less than 8 mm; fine pebbles (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:7.85
    Units:percent
    FPM3
    Frequency percent of the sample in the -3 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 8 mm, but less than 16 mm; medium pebbles (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:39.32
    Units:percent
    FPM4
    Frequency percent of the sample in the -4 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 16 mm, but less than 32 mm; coarse pebbles (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    FPM5
    Frequency percent of the sample in the -5 phi fraction (nominal diameter of particles greater than or equal to 32 mm, but less than 64 mm; very coarse pebbles (Source: Scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:100
    Units:percent
    HOTLINK
    Path indicating where an image corresponding to this location can be hotlinked to this point. This path contains an environment variable specifying the root directory of the project. (Source: Data processor.) character set
    AQ_DATE
    Date the bottom sample was acquired. (Source: Scientist.) character set

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • David C. Twichell
    • VeeAnn A. Cross
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    David C. Twichell
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2266 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    dtwichell@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This shapefile is intended to provide information as to what the floor of the John Day Reservoir looks like.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: unknown (process 1 of 8)
    Video imagery of the floor of the John Day Reservoir was collected using a system developed by the USGS in Cook, WA. This system was patterned after the SeaBOSS system in Woods Hole, MA. They system used a Van Veen grab sampler, and had a video camera mounted on the frame.
    Date: unknown (process 2 of 8)
    The VHS tapes from this cruise were displayed on a flat-screen monitor and photographs were taken of theonitor using a Nikon Coolpix-5000 digital camera. It was attempted to take the picture near the time when the sediment sample was actually acquired, but this was not always possible. The only navigation available for these data were the actual sample points, so the imagery is located near, but not exactly where the navigational fixes are.
    Date: unknown (process 3 of 8)
    These digital photographs were imported to Corel PHOTO-PAINT version 11 where the images were cropped, converted to black and white images, and enhanced to improve image contrast.
    Date: unknown (process 4 of 8)
    This information was gleaned from an email message in 2003 from Laura Landerman (at the time working for the U.S. Geological Survey office in Cook, Washington) to VeeAnn Cross. This information was incorporated into the metadata on 12/6/2017 by VeeAnn. The original metadata did not address the analyses of the sediment samples at all.
    The samples collected in the John Day Reservoir were incredibly varied. Video of the bottom showed many areas consisted of gravel (granules to large boulders) covered with varying thicknesses of finer sediments ranging in size from silt to sand. The samples collected sometimes included cobble from the bottom. Sample sizes were not large enough to actually quantify the distribution of the larger material; therefore, only the sand or finer material which was collected in each sample (if any) was analyzed for its grain size distribution. In some instances some of the slightly larger material was noted in more detail, otherwise the grain size analysis focuses on material approximately 2mm (-1 phi) or smaller.
    Samples were prepared according to standard USGS Coastal and Marine Geology procedures (USGS CMG), modified from Folk (1968) and Carver (1971; chapter 4). Samples were wet sieved at 2mm (-1 phi) and 1mm (0 phi) and weights were recorded. If the 1mm - 2mm fraction was greater than 0.00g the samples were again wet sieved at 63 micons (4 phi) and the sand fraction (63 microns to 2 mm) were run through settling tubes and the fine fraction (smaller than 63 microns) were analyzed with the Coulter LS Particle Size Analyzer (Coulter, 1994). Otherwise, the 1mm and finer sample was analyzed using the Coulter LS Particle Size Analyzer Coulter). The USGS CMG settling tubes are modified after Thiede et al., (1976), and similar to that described by Syvitski, (1991; chapters 1 and 4). The Coulter uses laser diffraction theory to analyze particle sizes up to 1mm.
    Statistical analyses of the results were obtained using a USGS-developed computer program. The program calculates graphical statistics, median, mean, skewness, and kurtosis, using methods presented by Folk and Ward, Inman (Carver,1971; chapter 6), and Trask (1930), and the moment measures (Carver, 1971; chapter 6).
    References: Carver, R.E., 1971, Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 653pp. Coulter Corporation, 1994, Coulter Product Manual, May, 1994, Coulter Corp., Miani, FL.
    Folk, R. L., 1968, Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks: Austin, University of Texas Publication, 170 p. Syvitski, J.P.M., 1991, Principles, Methods, and Application of Particle Size Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 368 pp. Thiede, J., T. Chriss, M. Clausson, and S. A. Swift, 1976, Settling Tubes for Size Analysis of Fine and Coarse Fractions of Oceanic Sediments, School of Oceanography, Oregon State University, Report#76-8, 87 pp.
    Trask, P. D., 1930, Mechanical analysis of sediments by centrifuge, Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 25, no. 6, pp. 581-599.
    sdsz A Program for Sediment Size Analysis by Graig McHendrie documentation by Carol Madison and Graig McHendrie U.S. Geological Survey Menlo Park, CA July 12, 1989 Version 3.3 34p.
    Date: 06-Dec-2017 (process 5 of 8)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Added the link to the data catalog page in the Identification section, and a link to the publication in the Larger Work Citation. Added online link to the data in the Distribution section. Added a link to the field activity. The information in the quantitative horizontal accuracy assessment was moved to the horizontal positional accuracy report. A process step was added to account for the sediment sample analysis. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 8)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The navigational system has an accuracy better than 10m, but because the data acquisition system was towed, this reduces the navigational accuracy. Assumed accruacy is 10 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Represents all the locations where a bottom sample was recovered.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All sample locations were treated the same.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey must be referenced as the originator of the dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    David C. Twichell
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2266 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    dtwichell@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    These data were prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. Although all data published in this report have been used by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related materials and/or the functioning of the software. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of this data, software, or related materials.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
VeeAnn A. Cross
U.S. Geological Survey
Marine Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

(508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2004-1014/jd2002_analmeta.faq.html>
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