1-meter Composite Mosaic of the Sidescan Sonar Survey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) H11045 in west-central Long Island Sound off Bridgeport, Connecticut in Geographic (H11045_GEO1M_WGS84_INV.TIF)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
1-meter Composite Mosaic of the Sidescan Sonar Survey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) H11045 in west-central Long Island Sound off Bridgeport, Connecticut in Geographic (H11045_GEO1M_WGS84_INV.TIF)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has produced detailed geologic maps of the sea floor in Long Island Sound, a major East Coast estuary surrounded by the most densely populated region of the United States. These studies have built upon cooperative research with the State of Connecticut that was initiated in 1982. The current phase of this research program is directed toward studies of sea-floor sediment distribution, processes that control sediment distribution, nearshore environmental concerns, and the relation of benthic community structures to the sea-floor geology. Anthropogenic wastes, toxic chemicals, and changes in land-use patterns resulting from residential, commercial, and recreational development have stressed the environment of the Sound, causing degradation and potential loss of benthic habitats (Koppelman and others, 1976; Long Island Sound Study, 1994). Detailed maps of the sea floor are needed to help evaluate the extent of adverse impacts and to help manage resources wisely in the future. Therefore, in a continuing effort to better understand Long Island Sound, we have constructed and interpreted sidescan sonar mosaics (complete-coverage acoustic images of the sea floor) within specific areas of special interest. The mosaic presented herein covers a 190.3 km square area of the sea floor in the West-Central Basin of Long Island Sound. The mosaics and their interpretations serve many purposes, including: (1) defining the geological variability of the sea floor, which is one of the primary controls of benthic habitat diversity; (2) improving our understanding of the processes that control the distribution and transport of bottom sediments and the distribution of benthic habitats and associated infaunal community structures; and (3) providing a detailed framework for future research, monitoring, and management activities. The sidescan sonar mosaics also serve as base maps for subsequent sedimentological, geochemical, and biological observations, because precise information on environmental setting is important for selection of sampling sites and for accurate interpretation of point measurements.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, 2005, 1-meter Composite Mosaic of the Sidescan Sonar Survey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) H11045 in west-central Long Island Sound off Bridgeport, Connecticut in Geographic (H11045_GEO1M_WGS84_INV.TIF): Open-File Report 2005-1162, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Beaulieu, E., Poppe, L.J., Paskevich, V.F., Doran, E.F., Chauveau, B.E., Crocker, J.M., Beaver, A.L., and Schattgen, P.T., 2005, Sidescan Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretation of the Sea Floor off Bridgeport, Connecticut: Open-File Report 2005-1162, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 DVD-ROM
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.306780
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.106889
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.153680
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.018159
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1162/graphics/h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.jpg (JPEG)
    Overview of the digital sidescan sonar mosaic in UTM produced for NOAA survey H11045
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2003
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 14700 x 17100 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000009. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000012. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Band_1
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Larry Poppe
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2314 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    lpoppe@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This georeferenced image is a component of the Long Island Sound GIS database and contains the completed sidescan sonar mosaic for the study area off Bridgeport, Connecticut. These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. The data can be used with geographic information systems (GIS) software to display geologic and oceanographic information.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    h11045_1m.tif (source 1 of 1)
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, unknown, h11045_1m.tif.

    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution:
    Original sidescan sonar mosaic created by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This image is in geographic.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2004 (process 1 of 9)
    The sidescan sonar imagery contained in this report was produced from data collected during 2004 as part of NOAA survey H11045 aboard the NOAA Ship RUDE. The data for these surveys were acquired in XTF (extended Triton data format) using a Klein 5500 sidescan sonar towfish set to sweep 100 m to either side of the ship's track. The Klein 5500 tow fish emits two 50°-wide beams tilted down 20° from horizontal, and transmits at 100 kHz. The sidescan sonar were digitally recorded in XTF format using an ISIS data acquisition software package. Once digitally recorded, the XTF data were processed using CARIS SIPS. The sidescan sonar data were multiplexed and filtered to convert the data into the desired processing format and to remove speckle noise and corrected for slant-range distortions. The mosaic include the following standards: 1 meter resolution, image 'shine through', and auto contrast adjustment. The final image was projected in Universal Transverse Mercator to maintain the aspect ratio. Person who carried out this activity:
    Bryan Chaveau
    Atlantic Hydrographic Branch, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration
    Field Support Liason
    Hydrographic Systems and Technology Program
    Norfolk, VA
    USA

    (757) 441-6726 (voice)
    bryan.chaveau@noaa.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • XTF sidescan sonar data
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • h11045_1m.tif
    • h11045_1m.tfw
    Date: 2005 (process 2 of 9)
    The original image was converted from 24-bit grayscale to 8-bit grayscale and cropped. Person who carried out this activity:
    Valerie Paskevich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Computer Specialist, GIS Coordinator
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2281 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vpaskevich@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • h11045_1m.tif
    • h11045_1m.tfw
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • h11045_1m_utm18_wgs84.tif
    • h11045_1m_utm18_wgs84.tfw
    Date: 2005 (process 3 of 9)
    The image was converted from UTM zone 18 to geographic Person who carried out this activity:
    Valerie Paskevich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Computer Specialist, GIS Coordinator
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2281 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vpaskevich@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • h11045_1m_utm18_wgs84.tif
    • h11045_1m_utm18_wgs84.tfw
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tif
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tfw
    Date: 2005 (process 4 of 9)
    The image was inverted to reverse the grayscale in the geographic image Person who carried out this activity:
    Valerie Paskevich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Computer Specialist, GIS Coordinator
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2281 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vpaskevich@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tif
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tfw
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tif
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tfw
    Date: 2005 (process 5 of 9)
    The image was inverted to reverse the grayscale in the geographic image Person who carried out this activity:
    Valerie Paskevich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Computer Specialist, GIS Coordinator
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2281 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vpaskevich@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tif
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84.tfw
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tif
    • h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tfw
    Date: 08-Mar-2016 (process 6 of 9)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The source information was incomplete and had to be modified to meet the standard. Fixed the geographic coordinate system and removed the planar coordinate system. Removed empty entity and attribute information. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 7 of 9)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 8 of 9)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 9 of 9)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, H11045_UTM18_WGS84.TIF: NOAA survey H11045.

    Other_Citation_Details: Data are released via DVD

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    There are no attributes associated with a GEOTIFF image.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigation was by differential GPS; positional accuracy to less than 10 m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All collected data were processed and used to generate the digital mosaic
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Information unavailable from original metadata.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the originators of this dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Larry Poppe
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 548-8700 x2314 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    lpoppe@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report - h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tif
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Although this data set has been used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT-DEP), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS or NOAA as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS, CT-DEP, or NOAA in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a GEOTIFF image with an accompanying world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Elizabeth Beaulieu
Physical Science Lab Technician
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

(508) 548-8700 x2277 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
ebeaulieu@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2005-1162/h11045_geo1m_wgs84_inv.tif.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:20 2021