Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006
Abstract:
Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into estuaries and the Atlantic Ocean. Coastal resource managers here and elsewhere are concerned about nutrients that are entering coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge, which are contributing to eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. CRP is used to measure electrical resistivity of sediments, a property that is sensitive to differences in salinity of submarine ground water. The 2004 and 2006 surveys used floating resistivity streamers of 100 m and 50 m respectively. The depth penetration of the streamers is approximately 20% of the streamer length which translates to approximately 20-25 m with the 100 m streamer and 12-14 m with the 50 m streamer. These data were processed using AGI's EarthImager 2D software.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Bratton, John F., 2008, Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006: Open-File Report 2006-1169, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cross, VeeAnn A., Bratton, John F., Crusius, John, Colman, John A., and McCobb, Timothy D., 2008, Submarine Hydrogeological Data from Cape Cod National Seashore: Open-File Report 2006-1169, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.973172
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -69.945350
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.836933
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.820967
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 28-Feb-2006
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (177422)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    mrg2006_trimxyz
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    ID
    Software generated identification number. (Source: Software.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:28545
    DIST
    Distance along line (in meters) that the point occurs. A negative value indicates the beginning of the line was extended to recoup the beginning portion of the line before the streamer passed the initial GPS position. (Source: Processing software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-34.7
    Maximum:2643
    Units:meters
    LONGITUDE
    Longitude position of the data point. (Source: Software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-69.973172
    Maximum:-69.94535
    Units:decimal degrees
    LATITUDE
    Latitude position of the data point. (Source: Software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:41.820967
    Maximum:41.836838
    Units:decimal degrees
    UTMX
    UTM easting, based on UTM Zone 19 NAD83, position of the data point. (Source: Software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:419195.9
    Maximum:421498.3
    Units:meters
    UTMY
    UTM northing, baseed on UTM Zone 19 NAD83, position of the data point. (Source: Software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4630342.8
    Maximum:4632116.6
    Units:meters
    DEPTH
    Depth from water surface (in meters) where the data point occurs. (Negative value indicates below the water surface.) (Source: Processing software generated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-14.2
    Maximum:-0.2
    Units:meters
    RESVALUE
    Resistivity value of the data point. (Source: Processing software calculated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.112461
    Maximum:167.825
    Units:ohm-meters
    LINE
    Resistivity trackline along which the data point is from. (Source: Data processor.) character set

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • John F. Bratton
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    John F. Bratton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2254 (voice)
    508-457-2210 (FAX)
    jbratton@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To provide processed resistivity data as a point shapefile. This version has removed all the data points that fall above the sediment/water interface.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Raw data (source 1 of 1)
    USGS, unpublished material, Raw CRP data.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This file had a source contribution, but no source citation information. This information was populated based on information in the source contribution.
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were acquired with an AGI SuperSting Marine system that is described at the website: www.agiusa.com/marinesystem.shtml. The particular system used for this acquisition was an 11 electrode array with electrodes spaced 5 meters apart. The potential electrodes are made of graphite, with the remaining electrodes stainless steel. A dipole-dipole configuration was used for the data collection in which two fixed current electrodes are assigned with the measurement of voltage potentials between electrode pairs in the remaining electrodes. Each line of data acquisition records several files. The two files necessary for processing are the *.stg and *.gps file. The STG file contains the resistivity data, while the GPS file contains the navigation information including bathymetry. GPS and bathymetry data acquired with a Lowrance system.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2006 (process 1 of 18)
    The data were transferred from the logging computer via AGISSAdmin software. The data files available for this day are l1*, l2*, l3*, l4*, l5*, l6*, l8*, l9*, l10*, l11*, l12*, l13*, l14*, and l15*. ***Of note, on lines 1 and 2, during acquisition the distance between the cable connection point and the first electrode was entered as 10 meters instead of -10 meters. This can be adjusted when reading the data into Marine Log Manager for linearization. Person who carried out this activity:
    Emile M. Bergeron
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Electronics Technician
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2337 (voice)
    (508) 457-2313 (FAX)
    ebergeron@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 2 of 18)
    $GPRMC lines with the GPS file that had bad time stamps or were otherwise corrupt were deleted. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 3 of 18)
    The resistivity data were merged with the navigation data and linearized using AGI's Marine Log Manager software. (Note that the Marine Log Manager version is different than the software version of the AGISSAdmin software of which it is a part - although shipped together, the software is developed separately). In some instances, only a portion of the line was exported for processing. In particular, turns are removed before processing. (AGISSAdmin version 1.33.182) ***Note. When reading in l1 and l2, the GPS offset needs to be set to 10 to account for an incorrect acquisition parameter indicating the distance between the cable connection point and the first electrode. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 4 of 18)
    In most cases, nearshore values were very important. For that reason, the whole linearized STG file was selected for export. This applied in the following lines: l1, l2, l4, l5, l6, l9, l11, l12 and l14. The way the Marine Log Manager software works, the first value exported is where at least one of the electrodes has a known navigational fix. But the rest of the streamer electrodes at this position have a negative distance along line. When this export option is chosen, no DEP file is output. In order to create a DEP file, a second export file is needed. This one selects only positive electrode positions for export. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 5 of 18)
    The linearized STG file with negative values is processed with EarthImager version 2.01 in order to determine the most negative position (available from the final XYZ output file). Once this is done, I can create a navigation fix for that negative distance along line. Based on the trackline created from the GPS data, I run an ArcView 3.3 avenue script (extendline.ave) which uses a straight-line tow path assumption of the first 2 points to create an additional point at the negative distance input. Essentially I extend the line at the start of the line. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 6 of 18)
    With this new point I can modify the DEP file generated by the positive only electrode position export. I add in the negative distance along, as well as all the supplemental information, including the header information describing the latitude and longitude position of the start of line. So now I have a linearized STG file, as well as the accompanying DEP file for those files with negative distances along line. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 7 of 18)
    The DEP file was checked for anomalous bathymetry values, or duplicated distance along values, and those lines in the file were deleted. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 8 of 18)
    EarthImager software does not require that a default resistivity value for the water column be supplied in the DEP file. If one is not supplied, then it calculates a value based on the first electrode pair. On this survey, an instrument was used periodically to measure water conductivity. This value was converted to appropriate resistivity units and added to the DEP file. A value of 0.2 was used in all the files. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 9 of 18)
    EarthImager version 2.0.1 was used to process the data files. The *.ini file accompanying the results contains the parameters used during the processing. These parameters include: minimum voltage: 0.02; minimum abs(V/I): 2E-5; max repeat error: 3%; min apparent res: 0.03; max apparent res: 1000; max reciprocal error: 5%; remove spikes, smooth model inversion; finite element method; Cholesky decomposition; Dirichlet boundary condition; thickness incremental factor: 1.1; depth factor: 1.1; number of iterations: 8; stop criteria: max RMS 3%; error reduction 6%; L2Norm; CRP processing using a 60% overlap. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 10 of 18)
    The results of the processing are JPEG images of the resistivity profile (a short and extended version); an XYZ file containing the distance along, depth, apparent resistivity (ohm-m); an LLT file which contains longitude, latitude, depth, and resistivity value; a UTM file which contains easting, northing, depth, resistivity value. The JPEG files produced uses a color scale that is based on the data from that particular file. This particular version of EarthImager defaults to using the latitude and longitude values along the x-axis to mark electrode positions. Another pair of long and short JPEG images was exported which use the distance along values for the electrode positions on the X-axis. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 11 of 18)
    The XYZ output file was then loaded into Matlab, along with the depth information, to create a new JPEG image with the same color scale for all the data files. In this manner, the JPEG images can be compared directly. Care was taken to try to get the vertical and horizontal scales uniform as well, although this was not always possible due to Matlab limitations. These images reside in the "matlabimages" folder. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 12 of 18)
    The XYZ output file was also loaded into Matlab with the DEP file so that those resistivity values in the water column could be removed. The extrapolated value at the sediment water interface was exported, as well as all the values in the original XYZ file below the DEP line. These new XYZ files are in the folder "trimxyz". Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 13 of 18)
    An avenue script (createatdistance.ave) was used in ArcView 3.3 to read the trimmed XYZ files, and based on the distance along value, extract the geographic X and Y position based on the polyline trackline. The result is a point shapefile containing each line of information in the XYZ file. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2006 (process 14 of 18)
    Each individual trimmed XYZ shapefile was merged into a single point shapefile. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 10-Nov-2015 (process 15 of 18)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. The source citation information is inferred from other information in the metadata and was not part of the original metadata file. Source time period of content was inferred from the time period of the dataset. Needed to add link to data in the distribution section. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 16 of 18)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 17 of 18)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 18 of 18)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Only those lines with valid resistivity data are represented here.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No additional checks for topological consistency other than visual inspection were performed on the data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey must be referenced as the originator of the dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    John F. Bratton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2254 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    jbratton@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) shapefile format. The user must have ArcGIS or ArcView 3.0 or greater software to read and process the data file. In lieu of ArcView or ArcGIS, the user may utilize another GIS application package capable of importing the data. A free data viewer, ArcExplorer, capable of displaying the data is available from ESRI at www.esri.com.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
VeeAnn A. Cross
U.S. Geological Survey
Marine Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

(508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2006-1169/mrg2006_trimxyz.shp.faq.html>
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