5 meter multibeam-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the offshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (RESON_BS5M.tif, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
5 meter multibeam-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the offshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (RESON_BS5M.tif, UTM Zone 19, WGS84)
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Science Center. Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine reserves, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters (5-30m deep) of Massachusetts between the New Hampshire border and Cape Cod Bay. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports<http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/html/current_map.html>. This spatial dataset is from the Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach Massachusetts project area. They were collected in two separate surveys in 2004 and 2005 and cover approximately 325 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. High resolution bathymetry and backscatter intensity were collected in 2004 and 2005. Seismic profile data, sediment samples and bottom photography were also collected in 2005.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, 5 meter multibeam-sonar backscatter GeoTIFF mosaic of the offshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area (RESON_BS5M.tif, UTM Zone 19, WGS84): Open-File Report 2007-1373, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Hein, Christopher J., 2008, High-Resolution Geological Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts.: Open-File Report 2007-1373, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.798877
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.585305
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.885321
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.667022
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1373/GIS/browse_jpg/reson_bs5m.jpg (JPEG)
    black and white thumbnail image of backscatter mosaic
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 23-Feb-2004
    Ending_Date: 23-Mar-2004
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 4781 x 3399 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.001120
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.001120
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    reson_bs5m.tif.vat
    Value Attribute Table (Source: ESRI)
    OID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    VALUE
    Value of pixel in Digital number units (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2
    Maximum:255
    COUNT
    Count or number of pixels (Source: ESRI) Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255). Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). The background no data value outside the mosaic is 0. The no data value inside the bounds of the mosaic is set to 255 in the missing line OEMBA04076_D07. The data range of good pixel values is 2-254.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of these data is to collect relative backscatter reflectance of the seafloor with a hull-mounted RESON 8101 multibeam echo sounder in the offshore survey area.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (source 1 of 1)
    Information unavailable from original metadata., unpublished material, Raw data acquisition.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The source citation information is inferred from other information in the metadata and was not part of the original metadata file. Source time period of content was inferred from the time period of the dataset.
    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution:
    System Setup and Operation: The offshore bathymetric and backscatter data were collected aboard the R/V OceanExplorer in 2004 using a hull-mounted RESON 8101 multibeam echo sounder operating at a frequency of 240 kHz. The survey comprised 328 main scheme lines at 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 200-meter spacings and 6 cross lines at 3 km spacing. The RESON 8101 used cutoff angles set at 57 degrees (114 degrees total swath) in order to provide three times the water depth per swath. Vessel speed for the survey was nominally 9 knots.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Mar-2004 (process 1 of 9)
    The majority of the multibeam data were initially edited onboard the vessel, using SAIC's Multi View Editor (MVE) program. This tool is a geo-referenced editor, which allows for both plan and profile views with each beam in its true geographic position and depth. Each data file was edited to remove noise, fish, etc. At the end of each leg, both the raw and processed data were backed up onto 4mm tapes and shipped to the Data Processing Center in Newport, RI. Once the data were in Newport and had been extracted to local machines, track lines were created by extracting the sounder position from the multibeam data. The tracks were reviewed to confirm that no errors in navigation existed and that the tracks extended to the outermost bounds of the survey area. Person who carried out this activity:
    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)
    221 Third St.
    Newport, RI
    USA

    401-847-4210 (voice)
    401-849-1585 (FAX)
    Date: 30-Apr-2004 (process 2 of 9)
    Processed and edited multibeam line files were delivered to USGS by SAIC in GSF (Generic Sensor Format) format. Person who carried out this activity:
    Bradford Butman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Oceanographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2212 (voice)
    505-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbutman@usgs.gov
    Date: Jan-2008 (process 3 of 9)
    GSF files were converted to UNB OMG (University of New Brunswick, Ocean Mapping Group) SwathEd format using new_unravel_gsf script developed by Jonathan Beaudoin and the University of New Brunswick, Ocean Mapping Group. This SwathEd script converted the GSF files for each line file and unraveled (converted) them into SwathEd format. This unravel process also normalized the effects of power and gain changes as described in Beaudoin and others 2002. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Jan-2008 (process 4 of 9)
    SwathEd Mosaic Process: An output file is created ( filename_ss_arc) containing the processed backscatter data (*.ss). These files were mosaicked in SwathEd using the command: mos2 -maxdist 50 -maxaxi 15 cape_ann.mos ../ss/JDAY/*.ss* Mosaic file (reson_5m.mos) was converted to a TIFF with the command: rawtopgm -headerskip 1024 429 699 cape_ann.mos | pnmtotiff > reson_5m.tif. The TIFF file "reson_5m.tif" was georeferenced by creating a TIFF world file (reson_5m.tfw) in a text editor and using the upper left bounding coordinates (UTM 19 WGS84) and resolution from the mosaic process. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Jan-2008 (process 5 of 9)
    Convert to GeoTIFF: Convert "reson_bs5m.tif" (with tfw file) to a GeoTIFF using GeoTIFFExamine (Mentor Software ver. 1.02). This process reads the georeferencing information from the tfw file and embeds it into the header of the TIFF. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 06-Nov-2015 (process 6 of 9)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. The source citation information is inferred from other information in the metadata and was not part of the original metadata file. Source time period of content was inferred from the time period of the dataset. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 7 of 9)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 8 of 9)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 9 of 9)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., and Butman, Bradford, 2006, High-Resolution Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Nahant to Gloucester, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2005-1293, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Ackerman, Seth D., Butman, Bradford, Barnhardt, Walter A., Danforth, William W., and Crocker, James M., 2006, High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Boston Harbor and Approaches, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1008, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), 20040430, Southern Merrimack Embayment Multibeam Survey, Survey Report: SAIC, Newport, Rhode Island.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Survey Report
    Beaudoin, J., Hughes Clarke, J.E., van den Ameele, E., and Gardner, J.,, 2002, Geometric and radiometric correction of multibeam backscatter derived from RESON 8101 systems.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Canadian Hydrographic Conference Proceedings CDROM

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    All data collected on the R/V OceanExplorer used Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) from U.S. Coast Guard land stations. Vessel positioning confidence checks were done by comparing the location data recorded from the POS/MV to location data recorded from the Trimble DGPS to ensure that both DGPS receivers were recording the same location at the same time.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data are included from all main scheme and gap file survey lines with the exception of line OEMBA04076_D07. The backscatter collected along this line was not processed because of complications with merging the navigation. Data collected from patch tests and cross lines are not included in this mosaic.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Information unavailable from original metadata.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The intended scale of these data is 1:25,000. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: File contains RESON 8101 multibeam backscatter imagery from the offshore portion of the Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach Massachusetts survey area. in format TIFF (version GeoTIFF) Size: 5.6
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1373/GIS/raster/backscatter/reson_bs5m.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data in a tiled GeoTIFF format are distributed as a compressed WinZip file. The user must have software capable of uncompressing a WinZip (ver. 9.0) file and viewing a tiled GeoTIFF image file.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Brian Andrews
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bandrews@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2007-1373/reson_bs5m.tif.faq.html>
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