One meter backscatter mosaic acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey with the 117- kHz SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SWATH_BS_1M GeoTIFF IMAGE, UTM19 N).

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
One meter backscatter mosaic acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey with the 117- kHz SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SWATH_BS_1M GeoTIFF IMAGE, UTM19 N).
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 3-30 meters deep. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/html/current_map.html). The data collected in the study area located in Northern Cape Cod Bay Massachusetts includes high-resolution geophysics (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection), and ground validation (sediment samples, video tracklines, and bottom photographs). The data were collected during five separate surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 and cover 480 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. More information about the individual USGS surveys conducted as part of the northern Cape Cod Bay project can be found on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity webpage: 06012: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2006/06012/ 07001: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07001/ 07002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07002/ 07003: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2007/07003/ 08002: http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/data/2008/08002/
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, One meter backscatter mosaic acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey with the 117- kHz SEA Ltd. SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay (CCB_SWATH_BS_1M GeoTIFF IMAGE, UTM19 N).: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Barnhardt, Walter A., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Northern Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts.: Open-File Report 2010-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.603122
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.480408
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.081631
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.925067
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/browse_jpg/CCB_Swath_bs_1m.jpg (JPEG)
    gray-scale thumbnail image of SWATHplus backscatter collected offshore of Massachusetts within the northern Cape Cod Bay.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 01-Aug-2007
    Ending_Date: 02-Aug-2007
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 17212 x 9856 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is Transverse Mercator.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255) with the data range 1-255. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). The background color is set to 0 and can be turned off without removing data values.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this GeoTIFF is to publish the acoustic backscatter of the seafloor acquired with the 117-kHz SWATHplus interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within northern Cape Cod Bay. The Klein 3000 sidescan sonar was primary sonar used to acquire acoustic backscatter during surveys 06012, 07001, 07002, and 08002. However, during August 1-2, 2007 (07002), the winch used to deploy the Klein 3000 sidescan sonar towfish was inoperable. The acoustic backscatter acquired with the 117-kHz SWATHplus interferometric sonar was processed to cover this data gap in the Klein 3000 backscatter data.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata. (source 1 of 1)
    Information unavailable from original metadata. Assumed to be USGS., unknown, Information unavailable from original metadata..

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard.
    Type_of_Source_Media: Information unavailable from original metadata.
    Source_Contribution:
    Sonar Configuration: Bathymetry data were acquired with a Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus 117 kHz interferometric sonar. Survey lines were run at an average speed of 5 knots and were spaced 150 m apart to obtain overlapping swaths of data and full coverage of the seafloor. The transducers were mounted on a rigid pole on the starboard side of the R/V Megan Miller, about 2.6 m below the waterline. A Coda Octopus F-180 inertial-motion unit, mounted directly above the transducers, measured true heading, vertical displacement (heave) and attitude (pitch and roll) of the vessel during acquisition. Navigation: Navigation was based on a Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS); the RTK-GPS antenna was mounted directly above the interferometric sonar head. The RTK-corrected GPS signal was sent to the ship from a base station established by the USGS on land. Horizontal (x and y) and vertical (z) offsets between the transducers and motion sensor and antenna and motion sensor were precisely measured and recorded within the SWATHplus acquisition software (SEA Swath Processor (2005)). These offsets are used to establish the motion sensor as the common reference point for data acquisition. Speed of Sound: Additionally, the depth of the transducers below the water surface was measured and recorded within the SEA Swath Processor acquisition software. This depth was used to derive the speed of sound profile and acoustic ray path based on speed of sound profiles collected within the survey area. Sound-velocity profiles were collected approximately every 2 hours by a hand-casted Applied MicroSystems SV Plus sound velocimeter.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Oct-2009 (process 1 of 8)
    Step 1: Raw to Processed Conversion: Each raw SWATHplus bathymetric sonar file (sxr) was converted to a SWATHplus processed file (sxp) using SEA SWATHplus Swath Processor (ver.3.6). During the conversion process, sound velocity profiles were used to minimize potential refraction artifacts from fluctuations in the speed of sound within the water column. Various bathymetric filters were applied to flag sounding outliers however all data (flagged/unflagged) were converted to the processed file. During this conversion process the tidal information from the previous process step was merged into the new processed file (sxp). Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2009 (process 2 of 8)
    Step 2: SXP Tools: Each sxp file was processed through a java-based SXPTools (version date 17 Sep 09) developed by David Finlayson at USGS. This routine was developed to look at all the soundings and normalize the data. Parameters are below: Command: sxpeng -insxp -outsxp_bs. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2009 (process 3 of 8)
    Step 3:CARIS Import-geoTIFF export: Import each of the sxp processed files into CARIS ver 6.1 using the generic data parser. Once each of the sxps were converted to a CARIS line file, a mosaic using the amplitude option was made for each line. A separate GeoTIFF image was produced for each of the 6 line files. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2009 (process 4 of 8)
    PCI Mosaic: The odd and even tiff images were then imported into PCI Geomatica Software (version 10.1) and digitally mosaicked at a 1.0-m pixel resolution using PCI's OrthoEngine. The composite mosaic was registered in the UTM (Zone 19N, WGS84, meters) coordinate system and exported as a GeoTIFF image. A TIFF world file (tfw) was also generated for those who can't read a GeoTIFF. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Nov-2015 (process 5 of 8)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.30 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). This file had a source contribution, but no other source information. This information had to be modified to meet the standard. The distribution format was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 8)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., and Butman, Bradford, 2006, High-Resolution Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Nahant to Gloucester, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2005-1293, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Ackerman, Seth D., Butman, Bradford, Barnhardt, Walter A., Danforth, William W., and Crocker, James M., 2006, High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Boston Harbor and Approaches, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1008, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Barnhardt, Walter A., Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Hein, Christopher J., 2009, High-Resolution Geological Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2007-1373, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Barnhardt, Walter A., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., and Baldwin, Wayne E., 2010, Geophysical and Sampling Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Duxbury to Hull, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2009-1072, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255). Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). No data value is set to 255.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The SWATHplus transducers were mounted on a rigid pole, approximately 2.6 m below the water line, along the starboard side of the R/V Megan T. Miller. Position data were provided by the Z-Surveyor Extreme for real-time kinematic (RTK) navigation (the Ashtech BR2G Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used as a backup navigation system) and recorded to the raw data files (SXR) via SWATHplus (version 2.07) on the acquisition computer. A conservative estimate of positional accuracy is estimated to be 10 m although when the system was recording RTK navigation the positional accuracy may be <1 m as RTK-GPS provides horizontal positional accuracies on the decimeter scale (http://www.noaa.gov; http://www.nos.noaa.gov; http://www.ngs.noaa.gov).
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This image does not include all backscatter data collected with the SWATHplus (117 kHz) interferometric sonar. It includes only SWATHplus backscatter data collected during JD 213-214 covering the data gap in the towed Klein sidescan-sonar backscatter data.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Information unavailable from original metadata.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
These data are not for navigational use. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: WinZip file containing a GeoTIFF backscatter collected by the U.S. Geological Survey with a SEA 117 kHz interferometric sonar offshore of Massachusetts within Northern Cape Cod Bay. in format GeoTIFF (version PCI v. 10.1) GeoTIFF Size: 16.0
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1006/GIS/raster/backscatter/CCB_Swath_bs_1m.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This Zip file contains a GeoTIFF image and world file. To utilize these data the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Brian Andrews
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bandrews@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2010-1006/CCB_Swath_bs_1m.tif.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:26 2021