Comma-Separated Value files of the raw sound velocity profiles and JPEG images displaying charts of the sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (CSV and JPEG Files)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Comma-Separated Value files of the raw sound velocity profiles and JPEG images displaying charts of the sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (CSV and JPEG Files)
Abstract:
In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008 as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within the upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels ( http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the suite of high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA . Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great Lakes.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, Comma-Separated Value files of the raw sound velocity profiles and JPEG images displaying charts of the sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (CSV and JPEG Files): Open-File Report 2010-1035, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, Jane F., Foster, David S., Worley, Charles R., and Irwin, Barry J., 2010, Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008-016-FA: Open-File Report 2010-1035, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.512900
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.410300
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.015700
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.653900
  3. What does it look like?
    https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1035/gis_catalog/bathymetry/svp/cast_sm.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of chart of sound velocity profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 29-May-2008
    Ending_Date: 01-Jun-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheet
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The comma delimited text files represent the raw sound velocity profiles collected during USGS Cruise 08016.
    The following is a description of file contents:
    Line 1: Sequential station number of the sound velocity profile (e.g. cast 1) Line 2: Description of the system used (e.g. SV plus) Line 3: Identification of the columns (Time (M/D/YYYY), Pressure (meters), Temperature (Celsius), Sound Velocity (meters/second), Battery (volts); Line 4: contains the units associated with line 3 (with the first column of information blank).
    The remainder of the text file lists the actual sound velocity profile data. Example:
    5/29/2008 1:01:21 PM,1443.60, -0.20, 13.428, 13.4
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    The raw sound velocity profile data format originates from Applied Microsystems, SV Plus v2 sound velocity profiler (<http://www.appliedmicrosystems.com/>).

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Comma delimited text files contain the raw sound velocity profiles collected during USGS Cruise 08016 in the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008. These data are supplied to provide the raw profile data used to minimize refraction artifacts within the swath bathymetric data. The sound velocity profiles are also saved as charts in JPEG format and supplied to provide a graphic view of the sound velocity profiles.
These data are also available within a separate WinZip archive (https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1035/gis_catalog/bathymetry/svp.zip).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, unknown, Information unavailable from original metadata.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    Sound velocity profiles are acquired in order to measure the speed of sound in the water column during survey operations. This information is used to correct any refraction artifacts that may be present within the swath bathymetric data due to unaccounted for changes in the speed of sound throughout the water column. As such, the swath bathymetric acquisition is described here, as well as acquisition procedures for the sound velocity profiles.
    Swath-bathymetric and acoustic-backscatter data were acquired with a SEA, Ltd., SWATHplus interferometric sonar operating at a 234-kHz frequency (http://www.sea.co.uk/swathplus.aspx?nav=products). The SWATHplus transducer was mounted at the bow of the USGS R/V Rafael. Bathymetric data were acquired over variable swath widths ranging from 10 to 100 m, in water depths of about 1 to 25 m. A total of 109 km of swath bathymetric data were collected.
    SWATHplus acquisition software (version 3.05.90) was used to digitally log the bathymetric data at a rate of 30 pings/second and 3,072 samples per swath (ping) in the SWATHplus SXR format. Data collection parameters are saved into a SWATHplus session file in SEA's SXS format. These files that can be later used for data replay.
    An Octopus F180R Attitude and Positioning system (see: <http://www.codaoctopus.com/motion/f180/index.asp>) recorded ship motion (heave, pitch, roll, and yaw). These data were transmitted via network connection to the SWATHplus data collection software. The Octopus F180R Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was mounted directly above the SWATHplus transducers, to minimize lever arm offsets that can lead to positioning errors. The F180R uses two L1 antennas for position and heading accuracy. The antennas are mounted on a rigid horizontal pole, 3 meters above the F180R IMU, with a horizontal separation of 1 meter and are offset from the IMU in a forward/aft configuration. The forward offset of the primary antenna from the IMU is 0.5 meters, with no port/starboard offset.
    Eight sound-velocity profiles were acquired during survey operations at roughly 4-hr intervals using an Applied Microsystems SV Plus V2 Velocimeter (http://www.appliedmicrosystems.com/products/productDetails.aspx?id=1)
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2009 (process 1 of 6)
    Eight sound velocity casts were collected at roughly 4 hour intervals during USGS Cruise 08016 using an Applied Microsystems SV Plus v2 instrument (see <http://www.appliedmicrosystems.com/products/productDetails.aspx?id=1> for details).
    At each station, the SV plus 2 was hand deployed and slowly lowered to the seafloor. The SV plus v2 was monitored by a member of the science party and as the instrument made contact with the seafloor, the position (i.e. location) was recorded in the lab using HYPACK navigation software. The position was then manually recorded within the cruise log and SWATHplus acquisition software. Upon recovery, the SV plus was connected to an onboard computer via serial port in order to download data using the SV plus v2 communications software, SmartTalk.
    Software: SV plus v2 SmartTalk (no version) Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 2009 (process 2 of 6)
    The data were then exported in comma-delimited text format and opened within Microsoft Excel. The files were saved in Microsoft Excel format (*.xls). Graphs of the sound velocity profile (Depth vs. speed of sound) at each station were created within Microsoft Excel and saved within the spreadsheet and as PDF files. The files were then opened using Adobe Photoshop CS3 and exported as JPG images.
    Software: Microsoft Excel 2004; Adobe Photoshop CS3 (10.0.1) Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700x2311 (voice)
    5084572310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Oct-2017 (process 3 of 6)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The link to the data in the Identification_Information section had to be fixed. The link to the data in the Distribution_Information section had to be fixed. Every other link to the data in the metadata had to be fixed. Attempted to modify http to https where appropriate. Reordered the links in the identification section to have a landing page link as the first link. The source information was incomplete and had to be modified to meet the standard. The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. Added the distribution format JPEG to account for the JPEG files in the zip file. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 4 of 6)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 5 of 6)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 6 of 6)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Foster, David S., and Denny, Jane F., 2009, Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada: Open-File Report 2009-1137, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) navigation data were acquired with a Communications Systems International (CSI), Inc. LGBX Pro receiver and recorded with HYPACK (www.hypack.com). The CSI LGBX Pro received positions from a DGPS antenna located on the port, aft roof of the R/V Rafael cabin. Ship location was used for the sound velocity deployments. The SV plus v2 sound velocity profiler was hand deployed. Once the system reached bottom, positions were read from HYPACK and stored. DGPS accuracy is 1 to 3 meters, depending on the distance from a US Coast Guard coastal repeater station (<http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/>). However, offsets from the location of hand-deployment and the DGPS antenna were not measured. Thus, the horizontal accuracy of the sound velocity locations is considered to be +/- 5 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Water depth of the sound velocity profiles was extracted from the recorded sound velocity profile after recovery. Depth is recorded as the sound velocity profiler is lowered through the water column and downloaded after the instrument is recovered. Data are stored in ASCII text files.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All sound velocity profiles collected during USGS Cruise 08016 are included within the WinZip archive (https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1035/gis_catalog/bathymetry/svp/cast.zip)
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All sound velocity profiles were acquired with the same instrument during the course of USGS Cruise 08016; an Applied Microsystems SV plus v2.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with any software package able to read comma delimited text files and JPEG images.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Jane F. Denny
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2010-1035/cast.faq.html>
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