Interpretation of the surficial geology within the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (ESRI VECTOR SHAPEFILE, SURFICIAL_GEOLOGY)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Interpretation of the surficial geology within the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (ESRI VECTOR SHAPEFILE, SURFICIAL_GEOLOGY)
Abstract:
In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008 as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within the upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels ( http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the suite of high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA . Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great Lakes.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, Interpretation of the surficial geology within the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008 (ESRI VECTOR SHAPEFILE, SURFICIAL_GEOLOGY): Open-File Report 2010-1035, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, Jane F., Foster, David S., Worley, Charles R., and Irwin, Barry J., 2010, Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada, 2008-016-FA: Open-File Report 2010-1035, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.427254
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.399505
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.016174
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.968066
  3. What does it look like?
    https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1035/gis_catalog/geology/surf_geol_sm.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of the surficial geology within the St. Clair River
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 31-May-2008
    Ending_Date: 04-Jun-2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • G-polygon (6)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    surficial_geology
    ESRI Shapefile (Source: ESRI)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    Surf_Geol
    Description of the surfical geologic units interpreted within the upper St. Clair River. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    Qu - Muddy SandQuaternary undifferentiated deposit consisting of muddy sand
    Qu - SandQuaternary undifferentiated deposit consisting of sand
    Qu - Sand and GravelQuaternary undifferentiated deposit consisting of sand and gravel
    Qu - Gravel, cobblesQuaternary undifferentiated deposit consisting of gravel and cobbles
    Qu (Qgl) - Silty ClayQuaternary undifferentiated glaciolacustrine deposit consisting of silty clay
    Qd - Silty ClayQuaternary glacial drift consisting of silty clay
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The unit definitions, Muddy Sand, Sand, Sand and Gravel, Gravel and cobbles, and Silty clay, are defined based on the interpretations of seismic data, physical samples of the riverbed and video and photographic data, and the backscatter variations within the backscatter mosaics. The sediment analysis of the physical samples of the riverbed provided grain size descriptions of each unit exposed on the riverbed.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This data set contains a description of the surficial geology within the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario. These data are used to assess the relation between geologic framework and morphologic changes in the St. Clair River channel.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2008 (process 1 of 8)
    Swath-bathymetric and acoustic-backscatter data were acquired with a SEA, Ltd., SWATHplus interferometric sonar operating at a 234-kHz frequency (http://www.sea.co.uk/swathplus.aspx?nav=products). The SWATHplus transducer was mounted at the bow of the USGS R/V Rafael. Bathymetric data were acquired over variable swath widths ranging from 10 to 100 m, in water depths of about 1 to 25 m. A total of 109 km of swath bathymetric data were collected.
    SWATHplus acquisition software (version 3.05.19) was used to digitally log the bathymetric data at a rate of 30 pings/second and 3,072 samples per swath (ping) in the SWATHplus SXR format. Data collection parameters are saved into a SWATHplus session file in SEA's SXS format. These files that can be later used for data replay.
    An Octopus F180R Attitude and Positioning system (see: <http://www.codaoctopus.com/motion/f180/index.asp>) recorded ship motion (heave, pitch, roll, and yaw). These data were transmitted via network connection to the SWATHplus data collection software. The Octopus F180R Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was mounted directly above the SWATHplus transducers, to minimize lever arm offsets that can lead to positioning errors. The F180R uses two L1 antennas for position and heading accuracy. The antennas are mounted on a rigid horizontal pole, 3 meters above the F180R IMU, with a horizontal separation of 1 meter and are offset from the IMU in a forward/aft configuration. The forward offset of the primary antenna from the IMU is 0.5 meters, with no port/starboard offset.
    Eight sound-velocity profiles were acquired during survey operations at roughly 4-hr intervals using an Applied Microsystems SV Plus V2 Velocimeter (Applied Microsystems, 2008).
    Video and digital photographs were collected at 37 stations using the USGS Mini SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001). Mini SEABOSS stations were selected based on preliminary acoustic-backscatter mosaics, with the objective of characterizing broad areas of different backscatter intensity. With the Mini SEABOSS deployed, the research vessel was allowed to drift with occasional power from the vessel to control drift direction. Continuous video was collected over a total of 11.5 km of lake and riverbed. Video drift position was derived from the HYPACK® navigation files based on the start and end times of the drift. For some portions of the drift, there was no navigation, so the position was derived from the time and position stamp in the video at 30-s intervals.
    Grab samples of the surficial sediment were collected at 15 stations, typically at the end of a drift. The upper 2 cm of sediment was scraped from the surface of the sample for texture analysis. Sediment samples were collected at locations with relatively fine-grained sediment (sand or mud). Samples were not collected in gravel or cobble areas where gravel prevented full closure of the sampler and resulted in a washed-out sample.
    A total of 13 bottom samples were submitted for grain-size analysis. Two partially recovered, washed-out samples were not submitted. Grain-size analysis was performed at the USGS Sediment Laboratory at WHCMSC using methods described by Poppe and others (2005).
    The seismic reflection profiling system utilized a Boomer energy source operated with a power output of 175 joules. The Boomer source was fired at 0.5 s intervals. A single-channel Benthos AQ4 streamer received the seismic reflection signal. The analog signal was band-pass filtered between 100 and 3000 Hz. A 23-db gain was applied. The analog signal was digitized and recorded in SEG-Y format using SonarWiz.MAP +SBP software version 4.03.0089. DGPS coordinates were recorded in the SEG-Y file trace headers in arc seconds. The layback distance from the DGPS antenna to the source and receiver was estimated and applied to the position during acquisition. A total of 200 ms of data were acquired for each trace. A total of 58.5 km of Boomer profiles were collected.
    Chirp sub-bottom profiles were collected using a dual-frequency (3.5 and 200 kHz) Knudsen Engineering Limited (KEL) Chirp 3200 system. Chirp sub-bottom data with a peak frequency of 3.5 kHz were recorded in SEG-Y format with DGPS navigation logged to the SEG-Y file trace headers. The Chirp system was fired at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 s. The trace length was set to 67 ms. A total of 80 km of Chirp sub-bottom data were collected.
    Date: 2009 (process 2 of 8)
    The surficial geology of the upper river study area was interpreted based on stratigraphic interpretations, sub-bottom acoustic character, acoustic backscatter, video and photographic observations, and grain-size analysis of surface samples. Acoustic backscatter was the primary data source used to map the aerial extent of six unique surficial units; all other data were used to support the backscatter interpretations.
    The aerial extent of six unique units was hand drawn within ArcGIS 9.2 using ArcGIS EDITOR tools. Polygon shapefiles were generated for each of the six interpreted units: muddy sand, sand, sand and gravel, gravel and cobbles, and two units of silty clay (Qu (Quaternary undifferentiated deposits) and Qd (Quaternary glacial drift). The projection for each polygon shapefile was defined as UTM, zone 17N, WGS84, meters.
    ArcGIS 9.2 Person who carried out this activity:
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
    Date: 2010 (process 3 of 8)
    Six individual shapefiles defining the surficial geology units were merged to generate one shapefile (surficial_geololgy.shp) using the following methodology:
    Four of the six shapefiles defining the surficial geologic units contained multiple polygons (sand, sand and gravel, gravel and cobbles and siltyclay). To ensure that each shapefile contained only one polygon of a specific bottom unit, the DISSOVLE command was used within Arc Toolbox - Data Management Tools - Generalization; aggregating polygons within each shapefile. Once each shapefile contained only one polygon, the EDITOR was used within ArcGIS to copy the individual polygons (i.e. surficial geologic units) into one master shapefile, saved as surficial_geology.shp.
    ArcGIS 9.2 Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 2010 (process 4 of 8)
    The shapefile was projected from UTM, Zone 17N, WGS84 to geographic coordinate system, WGS84 using ArcGIS 9.2, AcrToolbox, Data Management, Projections and Transformations, Project. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 19-Oct-2017 (process 5 of 8)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The link to the data in the Identification_Information section had to be fixed. Attempted to modify http to https where appropriate. Reordered the links in the identification section to have a landing page link as the first link. Moved the minimal source information provided to make it the first process step. The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 8)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Foster, David S., and Denny, Jane F., 2009, Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada: Open-File Report 2009-1137, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Blackwood, D., and Parolski, K., 2001, Seabed observation and sampling system: Sea Technology V. 42, no. 2, p. 39-43, Compass Publications, Arlington, VA.

    Poppe, L.J., Williams, S.J., and Paskevich, V.F., 2005, USGS East-Coast Sediment Analysis Procedures, Database, and GIS Data: Open-File Report 2005-1001, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All geophysical and sample data collected during USGS cruise 08016 were used to interpret the surficial geology.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All data used to interpret the surficial geology were collected during USGS cruise 08016 in May/June 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: WinZip (version 9.0) file containing a shapefile and layer file describing the surficial geology within the St. Clair river and associated metadata. in format Shapefile (version ArcGIS 9.2) Size: 1
      Network links: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1035/gis_catalog/geology/surf_geol.zip
    • Cost to order the data: none

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) vector shapefile format. The user must have ArcGIS or ArcView 3.0 or greater software to read and process the data file. In lieu of ArcView or ArcGIS, the user may utilize another GIS application package capable of importing the data. A free data viewer, ArcExplorer, capable of displaying the data is available from ESRI at www.esri.com.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: Jane F. Denny
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2010-1035/surficial_geology.faq.html>
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