KauaiS_shorelines - Shorelines of the southern coastal region of Kauai, Hawaii, from Waimea to Kipu Kai, used in shoreline change analysis.

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
KauaiS_shorelines - Shorelines of the southern coastal region of Kauai, Hawaii, from Waimea to Kipu Kai, used in shoreline change analysis.
Abstract:
Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, often surrounded by communities containing valuable real estate. Development is on the rise despite the fact that coastal infrastructure is subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, there is an increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes. To meet these national needs, the Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling existing reliable historical shoreline data along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii under the National Assessment of Shoreline Change project. Shoreline vectors derived from historic and modern sources represent the low water mark (beach toe).
There is no widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change. Existing shoreline data measurements and rate calculation methods vary from study to study and prevent combining results into state-wide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment project was to develop a standardized method of measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the results in an internally consistent manner.
Supplemental_Information:
Cross-referenced citations are applicable to the dataset as a whole. Additional citations are located within individual process steps that pertain specifically to the method described in that step.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group, 2011, KauaiS_shorelines - Shorelines of the southern coastal region of Kauai, Hawaii, from Waimea to Kipu Kai, used in shoreline change analysis.: Open-File Report 2011-1009, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Romine, Bradley M., Fletcher, Charles H., Genz, Ayesha S., Barbee, Matthew M., Dyer, Matthew, Anderson, Tiffany R., Lim, S. Chyn, Vitousek, Sean, Bochicchio, Christopher, and Richmond, Bruce M., 2011, National Assessment of Shoreline Change: A GIS Compilation of Vector Shorelines and Associated Change Data for the Sandy Shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui; Hawaii: Open-File Report 2011-1009, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.692500
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.375304
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.959360
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.872178
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1926
    Ending_Date: 2008
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • String (211)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    KauaiS_shorelines
    Vector shorelines (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    Date_
    Date of shoreline position; date of survey as indicated on source material. A default date of 01/01/YYYY was assigned to shorelines where only the year was known. (Source: USGS) Character string of length 10
    ACCURACY
    Total horizontal positional accuracy for historical shoreline segment (meters). See: 'Uncertainty and Error' section in accompanying report (National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Historical Shoreline Changes in the Hawaiian Islands, available online at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1051/ ) (Source: Information unavailable from original metadata.) Information unavailable from original metadata.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-547-2310 (FAX)

Why was the data set created?

This dataset includes shorelines ranging from 1926 to 2008 in the Kauai South coastal region from Waimea to Kipu Kai. Shorelines were compiled from T-sheets (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and aerial photos. Historical shoreline positions serve as easily understood features that can be used to describe the movement of beaches through time. These data are used to calculate rates of shoreline change for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project.
Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.2. DSAS uses a measurement baseline method to calculate rate-of-change statistics. Transects are cast from the reference baseline to intersect each shoreline, establishing measurement points used to calculate shoreline change rates.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2008 (process 1 of 12)
    Shoreline data were sought from local and national archives, libraries, and vendors in an effort to compile as many quality historical shorelines as possible for the region. T-sheets were requested from NOAA and received as scanned raster images. Processing date from 1998 to 2008. Person who carried out this activity:
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Attn: Matthew Barbee
    Technician
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-6754 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    mbarbee@hawaii.edu
    Date: 2008 (process 2 of 12)
    Georeferenced T-sheets were obtained from the United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS). T-sheets were rectified by NOAA on a Sun Microsystems(r) workstation using Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI)(r) ArcInfo(r) version 7.2.1 software by placing at least 6 well-spaced ground control points (GCPs) on selected T-sheet graticules in geographic coordinates. Some T-sheets produced before 1930 required additional coordinate transformation information from NOAA to convert from the United States Standard Datum (USSD) to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27). In the Hawaiian Islands, the adoption of the NAD27 datum for mapping and the emergence of several unsupported local and island-specific datums have led to significant confusion among cartographers and surveyors. The datum transformation was applied to T-sheet graticule coordinates prior to rectification. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) error for the rectification process was maintained below 1 pixel, which is approximately 4 m at a scale of 1:20,000 and approximately 1.5 m at a scale of 1:10,000. Typically the resulting RMS was much lower than one pixel.
    Geo-referenced T-sheets were loaded in ArcMap version 9.3. ArcMap was used to transform received Geographic Projected data into the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection with the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) datum for digitizing and vector analysis. A verification of the T-sheet shoreline was carried out where possible using control marks or physical shoreline features present on the T-sheet and a reliable current image database. Where verification failed, T-sheets were re-rectified in PCI Geomatics Orthoengine version 10.1 software using ground control points on existent control stations and identifiable shoreline features. In all cases, shoreline feature verification produced a higher quality data product.
    Many T-sheet products used in this study were re-rectified in PCI to correct significant errors associated with incorrect projection datum definitions. Such errors would have otherwise rendered the sheets unusable. T-sheets are georeferenced using polynomial mathematical models in PCI with RMS errors < 4 m. Rectification of T-sheets is also verified by overlaying them on aerial photomosaics to compare their fit to rocky shoreline and other unchanged geological features. Processing date from 1998 to 2008. Person who carried out this activity:
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Attn: Matthew Barbee
    Technician
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-6754 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    mbarbee@hawaii.edu
    Date: 2008 (process 3 of 12)
    New aerial photographs were taken of the Kauai, Oahu, and Kihei (Maui) shoreline between 2005 and 2008 by Air Flight Services, Inc. Aircraft position (global positioning system locations) and orientation data (e.g., altitude, pitch, roll, and yaw) were recorded by an on-board positional orientation system (POS). The recent images are orthorectified and mosaicked in PCI Geomatica Orthoengine software using polynomial models incorporating POS data and high resolution (5m -horizontal, submeter vertical) DEMs to reduce displacements caused by lens distortion, Earth curvature, refraction, camera tilt, and terrain relief; usually achieving Root Mean Square (RMS) positional error < 2 m.
    Earlier aerial photographs are orthorectified and mosaicked in PCI Geomatica Orthoengine using 2005-2008 and 1998 (west and north Maui) aerial orthophoto mosaics as master images (for collecting Ground Control Points (GCPs)) and high resolution (5m -horizontal, submeter vertical) DEMs to reduce displacements caused by lens distortion, Earth curvature, refraction, camera tilt, and terrain relief; usually achieving Root Mean Square (RMS) positional error < 2 m. Processing date from 1998 to 2008. Person who carried out this activity:
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Attn: Matthew Barbee
    Technician
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-6754 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    mbarbee@hawaii.edu
    Date: 2010 (process 4 of 12)
    Historical shorelines are digitized from NOAA NOS topographic maps (T-sheets) and 0.5 m orthorectified aerial photo mosaics in PCI Geomatica Focus Software. Quality assessments were performed and shorelines were edited to remove any overlap between adjacent shorelines. No edge matching between adjacent shorelines was attempted.
    Shoreline layers were saved from .pix (PCI Geomatics geographic data format) to shapefile (.shp) to allow for analysis in ESRI ArcGIS software using Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Shoreline layers from all sources were merged to produce a single shoreline shapefile for the coastal region. The final shoreline shapefile was coded with 4 attribute fields (ID, Shape, Date, and Accuracy) required for the DSAS, which was used to calculate shoreline change rates. The attributes reflect the source of the data and the original survey date. Processing date from 2008-2010. Person who carried out this activity:
    Matthew Barbee
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Technician
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-6754 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    mbarbee@hawaii.edu
    Date: 2010 (process 5 of 12)
    The appended shoreline files were imported into a personal geodatabase in ArcCatalog v9.3 by right-clicking on the geodatabase > Import feature class for shoreline file for use with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) v4.2 software to perform rate calculations.
    This and all following process steps performed by Bradley M. Romine, University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group. Person who carried out this activity:
    Bradley M. Romine
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    graduate student, research assistant
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-3605 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    romine@hawaii.edu
    Date: 2010 (process 6 of 12)
    The shoreline feature class was exported from the personal geodatabase back to a shapefile in ArcCatalog v9.3 by right-clicking on the shoreline file > Export > To Shapefile (single) for publication purposes.
    Date: 12-Jul-2011 (process 7 of 12)
    The data were projected in ArcToolbox v9.3 > Data Management Tools > Projections and Transformations > Feature > Project. Parameters: input projection = UTM zone 4N (NAD83); output projection = geographic coordinates (WGS84); transformation = 3 (Hawaii). Person who carried out this activity:
    Bradley M. Romine
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    graduate student, research assistant
    University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
    Honolulu, HI
    USA

    808-956-3605 (voice)
    808-956-5512 (FAX)
    romine@hawaii.edu
    Date: 23-Aug-2017 (process 8 of 12)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-Apr-2018 (process 9 of 12)
    Added keywords from Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
    Date: 15-May-2018 (process 10 of 12)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.46 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Added a data landing page link as the first link in the identification section. Removed LIDAR bounding coordinates - an artifact of Esri and MP processing. Fixed date format in process steps. Minor fixes to cross-reference information. Minor fixes to attribute information. The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. Added additional information to a cross-reference and fixed the online link. Attempted to modify http to https where appropriate. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 11 of 12)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 12 of 12)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Fletcher, Charles H., Romine, Bradley M., Genz, Ayesha S., Barbee, Matthew M., Dyer, Matthew, Anderson, Tiffany R., Lim, S. Chyn, Vitousek, Sean, Bochicchio, Christopher, and Richmond, Bruce M., 2011, National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Historical Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands: Open-File Report 2011-1051, U.S. Geological Survey, Resotn, VA.

    Online Links:

    Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, A., 2009, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 - An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change: Open-File Report 2008-1278, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Current version of software at time of use was 4.2
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Unknown, Scanned National Ocean Service (NOS) Coastal Survey Maps (also known as Topographic Survey sheets, or T-sheets): National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C..

    Other_Citation_Details: NOAA shoreline manuscripts (T-sheets)
    Corporation, R.M. Towill, 2008, digital scans of aerial photograph negatives.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Selected aerial photograph negatives from R.M. Towill archives scanned by UH Coastal Geology Group. Publication date 2005-2008. Publication place Honolulu, HI.
    Service, Air Flight, 2009, digital scans of aerial photograph negatives 2006-2009.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Aerial photographs of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii, shoreline 2005-2009. Publicatoin date 2005-2009. Publication place, Santa Clara, CA.
    Aviation, Hawaii, 2009, digital scans of aerial photograph negatives.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Digital scans of selected aerial photographs of Hawaii shoreline by UH Coastal Geology Group from Hawaii Aviation archives. Publication date 2005-2009, publication place Honolulu, HI.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The data provided here are a compilation of shorelines from multiple sources, spanning 82 years. The attributes are based on the requirements of the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) software and have gone through a series of quality assurance procedures.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Shoreline data have been acquired from 1926 to 2008, the horizontal accuracy of which varies with respect to data source from which the shorelines were digitized and the time period. Positional uncertainties for each shoreline segment are listed under the "ACCURACY" heading in the attribute table. Please visit the 'Uncertainties and Errors' section in the corresponding USGS Open-File Report ( https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1051/ ) for a complete explanation of the measurement uncertainties associated with these shorelines.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This shoreline file is complete and contains all shoreline segments used to calculate shoreline change rates along sections of the South Kauai coastal region where shoreline position data were available. These data adequately represented the shoreline position at the time of the survey. Remaining gaps in these data, if applicable, are a consequence of non-existing data or existing data that did not meet quality assurance standards.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Adjacent shoreline segments of a given time period do not overlap and are not necessarily continuous. Shoreline segments of different time periods may overlap where a beach has been completely lost to erosion (hard shoreline, either permanently or intermittently). In this special case, historical shorelines from time periods with no beach are aligned to a high water mark position mapped from the most recent aerial photo mosaic showing no beach. Shorelines were quality checked for accuracy. Any slight offsets between adjacent segments due to georeferencing and digitizing error are taken into account in the uncertainty calculations included in the corresponding report (U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2011-1051, available online at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1051/ ).

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-547-2310 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data: USGS Open-File Report 2011-1009
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This WinZip file contains a shapefile of historic shorelines from 1926 to 2008 for the sandy shorelines of the south coast of Kauai from Waimea to Kipu Kai. in format Shapefile (version ArcGIS 9.3) ESRI polyline shapefile Size: 0.5
      Network links: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1009/data/Kauai/KauaiS/KauaiS_shorelines.zip
    • Cost to order the data: None

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) polyline shapefile format. The user must have ArcGIS or ArcView 3.0 or greater software to read and process the data file. In lieu of ArcView or ArcGIS, the user may utilize another GIS application package capable of importing the data. A free data viewer, ArcExplorer, capable of displaying the data is available from ESRI at www.esri.com.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Bradley M. Romine
University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
graduate student, research assistant
University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group
Honolulu, HI
USA

808-956-3605 (voice)
808-956-5512 (FAX)
romine@hawaii.edu
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2011-1009/KauaiS_shorelines.shp.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:33 2021