0.8 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor off of Kitty Hawk, NC (mosaic3.jpg, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
0.8 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor off of Kitty Hawk, NC (mosaic3.jpg, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)
Abstract:
The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that mapped the Quaternary geologic framework of the estuaries, barrier islands, and inner continental shelf. This information provides a basis to understand the linkage between geologic framework, physical processes, and coastal evolution at time scales from storm events to millennia. The study area attracts significant tourism to its parks and beaches, contains a number of coastal communities, and supports a local fishing industry, all of which are impacted by coastal change. Knowledge derived from this research program can be used to mitigate hazards and facilitate effective management of this dynamic coastal system. This regional mapping project produced spatial datasets of high-resolution geophysical (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection) and sedimentary (core and grab-sample) data. The high-resolution geophysical data were collected during numerous surveys within the back-barrier estuarine system, along the barrier island complex, in the nearshore, and along the inner continental shelf. Sediment cores were taken on the mainland and along the barrier islands, and both cores and grab samples were taken on the inner shelf. Data collection was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and several other institutions including East Carolina University (ECU), the North Carolina Geological Survey, and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). The high-resolution geophysical data of the inner continental shelf were collected during six separate surveys conducted between 1999 and 2004 (four USGS surveys north of Cape Hatteras: 1999-045-FA, 2001-005-FA, 2002-012-FA, 2002-013-FA, and two USGS surveys south of Cape Hatteras: 2003-003-FA and 2004-003-FA) and cover more than 2600 square kilometers of the inner shelf. Single-beam bathymetry data were collected north of Cape Hatteras in 1999 using a Furuno fathometer. Swath bathymetry data were collected on all other inner shelf surveys using a SEA, Ltd. SwathPLUS 234-kHz bathymetric sonar. Chirp seismic data as well as sidescan-sonar data were collected with a Teledyne Benthos (Datasonics) SIS-1000 north of Cape Hatteras along with boomer seismic reflection data (cruises 1999-045-FA, 2001-005-FA, 2002-012-FA and 2002-013-FA). An Edgetech 512i was used to collect chirp seismic data south of Cape Hatteras (cruises 2003-003-FA and 2004-003-FA) along with a Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar system. Sediment samples were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler during four of the USGS surveys (1999-045-FA, 2001-005-FA, 2002-013-FA, and 2004-003-FA). Additional sediment core data along the inner shelf are provided from previously published studies. A cooperative study, between the North Carolina Geological Survey and the Minerals Management Service (MMS cores), collected vibracores along the inner continental shelf offshore of Nags Head, Kill Devils Hills and Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1996. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected vibracores along the inner shelf offshore of Dare County in August 1995 (NDC cores) and July-August 1995 (SNL cores). These cores are curated by the North Carolina Geological Survey and were used as part of the ground validation process in this study. Nearshore geophysical and core data were collected by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The nearshore is defined here as the region between the 10-m isobath and the shoreline. High-resolution bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and chirp seismic data were collected between June 2002 and May 2004. Vibracore samples were collected in May and July 2005. Shallow subsurface geophysical data were acquired along the Outer Banks barrier islands using a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system. Data were collected by East Carolina University from 2002 to 2005. Rotasonic cores (OBX cores) from five drilling operations were collected from 2002 to 2006 by the North Carolina Geological Survey as part of the cooperative study with the USGS. These cores are distributed throughout the Outer Banks as well as the mainland. The USGS collected seismic data for the Quaternary section within the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system between 2001 and 2004 during six surveys (2001-013-FA, 2002-015-FA, 2003-005-FA , 2003-042-FA, 2004-005-FA, and 2004-006-FA). These surveys used Geopulse Boomer and Knudsen Engineering Limited (KEL) 320BR Chirp systems, except cruise 2003-042-FA, which used an Edgetech 424 Chirp and a boomer system. The study area includes Albemarle Sound and selected tributary estuaries such as the South, Pungo, Alligator, and Pasquotank Rivers; Pamlico Sound and trunk estuaries including the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers; and back-barrier sounds including Currituck, Croatan, Roanoke, Core, and Bogue.
Supplemental_Information:
Acquisition System: Submetrix 2000 Series Interferometric System Frequency: 234 kHz Motion Sensor Information: TSS DM05 (motion); KVH Compass (heading only) Navigation: Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) Raw Data Format: proprietary binary format *.sxr Survey Layout: The entire survey area (~40 km alongshore distance) was separated into eight 5 km blocks, Block 1 being the most northern area and Block 8, the farthest south. Approximately 12 lines were planned in each block: 10 shore-parallel and 2 shore-perpendicular. The line closest to shore was line 1 while line 10 was the furthest from shore (~W to E). The spacing between the 5 innermost and outermost lines was 100 m and 150 m respectively. The spacing between the shore-perpendicular lines was ~2.5 km. Not all lines were surveyed depending on time/weather/equipment constraints. The naming convention of the shore-parallel lines is the block# followed by an underscore which is then followed by the line number (blockx_linex). The naming of the shore-perpendicular lines varied, but generally started with the block #, underscore and the whether the line was in the north or south of the survey block (blockx_ntie, etc).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    McNinch, Dr. Jesse, 2013, 0.8 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor off of Kitty Hawk, NC (mosaic3.jpg, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84): Open-File Report 2011-1015, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Thieler, E.R., Foster, D.S., Mallinson, D.M., Himmelstoss, E.A., McNinch, J.E., List, J.H., and Hammar-Klose, E.S., 2013, Quaternary Geophysical Framework of the Northeastern North Carolina Coastal System: Open-File Report 2011-1015, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.713292
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.675739
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.113148
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 36.066284
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 31-May-2002
    Ending_Date: 14-Jun-2002
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 6468 x 4180 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 18
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.800000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.800000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with a JPEG image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255) with the data range 1-255. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). Most of the NODATA area in the JPEG image (outside the survey bounds) have a backscatter pixel value of 0.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Dr. Jesse McNinch
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Pelican Lab ~ McNinch Lab at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Dr. Jesse McNinch
    (formerly) Virginia Institute of Marine Science (currently) US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center Field Research Facility
    Director
    USACE-CEERD-HC-F
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    (252)261-6840 ext 243 (voice)
    Jesse.Mcninch@usace.army.mil

Why was the data set created?

A regional survey of the North Carolina Outer Banks simultaneously collected nearshore bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data using an interferometric swath system (Submetrix series 2000) at a frequency of 234 kHz. This system allows interpretation of the spatial relationship of bathymetry to sediment distribution by enabling distinction between acoustic returns of high incident angles from seafloor sediments with high backscatter characteristics, and by eliminating the need to account for towfish layback artifacts. The system was mounted on the bow of an amphibious vehicle (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility-operated LARC5) and was used in conjunction with a motion sensor (TSSDM05), compass, and real-time kinematic global positioning system to obtain horizontal and vertical precision of about 10 cm. Acoustic backscatter is displayed as grayscale image where values correspond to the varied strength of the returned beam signal. The intensity of the sound signal received by the sonar tow vehicle is digitally represented as high (light-toned) or low (dark-toned) backscatter. Backscatter signals are influenced by the amount of acoustic signal reflected off of the seafloor. High backscatter indicates a strong signal reflection and symbolizes areas of coarse material. Low backscatter implies a weak signal reflection and marks areas of fine surficial sediment.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 6)
    The backscatter signal from the interferometric survey was processed using SonarWeb and/or SonarWiz software. Raw *.sxr files were read directly into SonarWeb producing a gridded mosaic and are provided as an image file (*.jpg) and associated reference navigation file (*.jgw). Person who carried out this activity:
    Dr. Jesse McNinch
    (formerly) Virginia Institute of Marine Science (currently) US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center Field Research Facility
    Director
    USACE-CEERD-HC-F
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    (252)261-6840 ext 243 (voice)
    Jesse.Mcninch@usace.army.mil
    Date: 24-Jun-2011 (process 2 of 6)
    The backscatter image was adjusted so that the color ramp display corresponds to the display of the inner shelf backscatter where coarser-grained material is light-toned and finer-grained material is dark-toned. The symbology of the nearshore mosaic was modified in Adobe Photoshop CS5. The levels option was selected and the color range was inverted. Input values that were originally assigned 0 were assigned an output value of 255. Input values that were originally 255 were assigned an output value of 0 (all values in between were also inverted). The background value of the image is 0 (black) and can be set to no color in the symbology properties. While 0 is the assigned background data value, it may also occur within the mosaic. Person who carried out this activity:
    Emily Himmelstoss
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2262 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ehimmelstoss@usgs.gov
    Date: 15-Jun-2016 (process 3 of 6)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The link to the data catalog was fixed. The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 4 of 6)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 5 of 6)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 6 of 6)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Schupp, C.A., McNinch, J.E., and List, J.H., 2006, Nearshore shore-oblique bars, gravel outcrops, and their correlation to shoreline change: Marine Geology v.233, n.1-4, pp.63-79.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The Submetrix (2000 series) interferometric swath system data was navigated with a real-time kinematic global positioning system with an accuracy of approximately 15 cm.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This image represents all backscatter data. Gaps may occur along-track and between adjacent lines.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Differences in contrast stretch (DN values) exist because of variations in sea and weather conditions on each survey day.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The USGS asks that Dr. Jesse McNinch from the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences be referenced as the originator of this dataset in any future products or publications.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Dr. Jesse McNinch
    (formerly) Virginia Institute of Marine Science (currently) US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center Field Research Facility
    Director
    USACE-CEERD-HC-F
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    (252)261-6840 ext 243 (voice)
    Jesse.Mcninch@usace.army.mil
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences (VIMS), nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This image is available as a JPEG with associated image world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a JPEG image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Dr. Jesse McNinch
(formerly) Virginia Institute of Marine Science (currently) US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center Field Research Facility
Director
USACE-CEERD-HC-F
Kitty Hawk, NC
USA

(252)261-6840 ext 243 (voice)
Jesse.Mcninch@usace.army.mil
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2011-1015/mosaic3.faq.html>
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