Survey lines along which acoustic backscatter data were acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2009, 2010, and 2011 (VS_BACKSCATTERTRACKLINES, ESRI Shapefile, Geographic WGS84).

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Survey lines along which acoustic backscatter data were acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2009, 2010, and 2011 (VS_BACKSCATTERTRACKLINES, ESRI Shapefile, Geographic WGS84).
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of sea-floor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 3-30 meters deep. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/). The data collected in the study area located in Vineyard Sound Massachusetts includes high-resolution geophysics (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection). The data were collected during three separate surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011and cover approximately 340 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. More information about the individual USGS surveys conducted as part of the Vineyard Sound project can be found on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity webpage: 2009-002-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2009-002-FA 2010-004-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2010-004-FA 2011-004-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2011-004-FA
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2012, Survey lines along which acoustic backscatter data were acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar offshore of Massachusetts within Vineyard Sound by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2009, 2010, and 2011 (VS_BACKSCATTERTRACKLINES, ESRI Shapefile, Geographic WGS84).: Open-File Report 2012-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Andrews, Brian D., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., Foster, David S., and Schwab, William C., 2012, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From the Inner Continental Shelf at Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.029045
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.431427
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.539802
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.270882
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1006/GIS/browse_jpg/VS_BackscatterTracklines.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of tracklines along which bathymetry was collected in the Vineyard Sound survey area.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 02-Jun-2009
    Ending_Date: 17-May-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of individual surveys on the following dates: 2009062-20090603; 20100521-20100604; 20110507-20110509; 20110514-20110517
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • String (386)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    VS_BackscatterTracklines
    Tracklines for backscatter data collected in the Vineyard Sound survey area. (Source: USGS)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    Line
    Name of sidescan-sonar file recorded along this survey line. This name is assigned by SonarPro acquisition software and is composed of HYPACK survey line+date+time. Where line = L65F1_090602015600= L65F1_=HYPACK line, 090602= year, month, day (2009, June, 2), and 015600= time stamp in UTC of start of the line 1 hour,56 minutes and 00 seconds. (Source: USGS) Character set.
    JD
    Julian Day the data were collected where Julian Day is the integer number representing the inverval of time in days since January 1 of the year of collection. (Source: USGS) Character set.
    Survey
    WHSC field activity number (Source: USGS) Character set.
    Vessel
    Name of the survey vessel used to collect the data. (Source: USGS) Character set.
    Length_km
    length of polyline feature in kilometers (calculated using UTM Zone 19, WGS84). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.02367
    Maximum:20.5541
    Units:kilometer

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of these data is to provide the trackline navigation and filenames of all the acoustic backscatter data acquired using a Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar within the Vineyard Sound survey area during these surveys.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2011 (process 1 of 8)
    Step 1. Navigation was extracted at a 1 minute interval from raw sidescan sonar data (XTF format) and saved to ASCII text using the XSonar (version 1.1) 'demultiplex' function (Danforth 1997). Individual ASCII navigation files were concatenated by survey (using shell scripts convertXsonarNav (no version) and Xsonar2ArcNav (no version)) into comma-separated value (CSV) text files with the following attributes: East, North, JD, Line, Lon, Lat. Processing occurred in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 2011 (process 2 of 8)
    Step 2. In ArcCatalog (version 9.3), the ASCII navigation file in CSV format for each survey was converted to a point feature class using ArcCatalog (version 9.3) by right-clicking on the comma separated text file, selecting "Create Feature Class from XY table", and specifying the output file "SurveyName"_k3k_navpts.shp in geographic coordinates. Processing occurred in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Nov-2011 (process 3 of 8)
    Step 3. Convert Points to Lines. The VAC Extras tool (version 2.04; USGS in-house software)Feature Conversion- points to Lines (version 2) tool was then used within ArcMap (version 9.3) to convert the point shapefile for each survey into a polyline shapefile by connecting sequential points with a line based on a unique identifier (Line attribute). In addition the first occurrence of the Julian Day (JD) for each line was carried over to the polyline shapefile. Text attribute for "Survey" and "Vessel" were added to each shapefile and the values were calculated using the "Field Calculator" in the context menu in ArcCatalog (version 9.3). The backscatter tracklines from each of the three surveys were merged into one shapefile (VS_BackscatterTracklines.shp) using the "Merge" tool in ArcToolbox (version 9.3). During the merge process the input shapefiles were in UTM Zone 19, WGS84, and the output projection of VS_BackscatterTracklines.shp was defined as Geographic, WGS84. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: Nov-2011 (process 4 of 8)
    Step 4. Calculate Length in Kilometers: The attribute "Length_km" is added using ArcCatalog (ver. 9.3) the length of each polyline feature was calculated (in UTM Zone 19n, Kilometers) using the "calculate geometry" context menu. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 26-May-2016 (process 5 of 8)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The link to the data in the Identification_Information section had to be fixed. Fixed a link to the project page in the abstract. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 8)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 7 of 8)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 8 of 8)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Danforth, William W., 1997, XSonar/ShowImage: A complete system for rapid sidescan-sonar processing and display.: Open-File Report 97-686, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    All attributes were checked in a consistent manner.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Field activity 2009-002-FA: The Klein 3000 was towed from the stern A-frame of the M/V Megan T. Miller. Differential GPS (DGPS) position data were provided by the Ashtech BRG2 receiver and recorded to the raw data files (XTF) via SonarPro (version 10.0) on the sonar acquisition computer. The GPS antenna was mounted on the aft end of the acquisition lab van. All GPS data during this survey was referenced to the WGS84 horizontal datum. The horizontal offsets between the GPS antenna and the sheave on the A-frame were measured prior to the survey (x: -2.0m; y:-8.35m; z:+2m). Additional layback position, accounting for the linear distance between the sheave on the A-frame and the towed sonar system were measured by a 3PS digital block cable counter on the winch that was used to deploy the sidescan-sonar towfish. All of the horizontal offsets were directly applied into the acquisition software so the navigation recorded in the XTF data reflect the position including the layback offset. The layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed-induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. DGPS positional accuracy is estimated to be within 3-5 m; Wide Area Augmentation System enable DGPS is estimated to be within less than 3 m. Considering the additional fish motion and cable movement, a conservative estimate of positional accuracy for this dataset is estimated to be within 10 m. Field activity 2010-004-FA: The Klein 3000 was towed from the stern A-frame of the M/V Megan T. Miller. Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS position data were provided by the Novatel DL-V3 receiver and recorded to the raw data files (XTF) via SonarPro (version 11.0) on the sonar acquisition computer. The GPS antenna was mounted on the top of the SWATHplus (interferometric bathymetry) transducer pole, midship on the starboard side (the middle of the 3 bathymetry system antennas). On a few brief occasions the RTK-GPS signal was lost and the navigation system fell back to standalone DGPS or GPS mode. In these cases, the lower quality positions were used and no corrections were made for RTK navigation gaps. All GPS data during this survey were referenced to the WGS84 horizontal datum. The horizontal offsets between the GPS antenna and the sheave on the A-frame were measured prior to the survey (x:-4.1m; y:-14.94m; z:-1.33m). Additional layback position, accounting for the linear distance between the sheave on the A-frame and the towed sonar system were measured by a 3PS digital block cable counter on the winch that was used to deploy the sidescan-sonar towfish. All of the horizontal offsets were directly applied into the acquisition software so the navigation recorded in the XTF data reflect the position including the layback offset. The layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. RTK positional accuracy is estimated to be within less than 1 m. Taking the additional fish motion, cable movement and RTK-GPS navigation dropouts into account, a conservative estimate of positional accuracy for this dataset is estimated to be within 10 m. Field activity 2011-004-FA: The Klein 3000 was towed from the stern A-frame of the M/V Scarlett Isabella. Differential GPS (DGPS) position data were provided by the Ashtech BRG2 receiver and recorded to the raw data files (XTF) via SonarPro (version 11.0) on the sonar acquisition computer. The GPS antenna was mounted on the forward end of the acquisition lab van. All GPS data during this survey was referenced to the WGS84 horizontal datum. The horizontal offsets between the GPS antenna and the sheave on the A-frame were measured prior to the survey (x: +4.31m; y:-9.18m; z:0.0m). Additional layback position, accounting for the linear distance between the sheave on the A-frame and the towed sonar system were measured by a 3PS digital block cable counter on the winch that was used to deploy the sidescan-sonar towfish. All of the horizontal offsets were directly applied into the acquisition software so the navigation recorded in the XTF data reflect the position including the layback offset. The layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. DGPS positional accuracy is estimated to be within 3-5 m; WAAS enable DGPS is estimated to be within less than 3 m. Taking the additional fish motion and cable movement into account, a conservative estimate of positional accuracy for this dataset is estimated to be within 10 m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Only the subset of sidescan-sonar trackline navigation collected during field activities 2009-002-FA, 2010-004-FA, and 2011-004-FA that are within the Vineyard Sound survey area are included in this spatial dataset.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Navigation data were extracted from the header of the raw line files. They have been compared to other navigation data collected during the cruise for consistency. Any spurious data points were removed during processing.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These data are not for navigational use. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geographer
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: Trackline navigation for acoustic backscatter collected within the Vineyard Sound survey area and associated metadata. in format SHP (version ArcGIS 9.3) ESRI polyline shapefile Size: 0.721
      Network links: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1006/GIS/shapefile/VS_BackscatterTracklines.zip
      Media you can order: DVD-ROM (Density 4.75 Gbytes) (format UDF)
    • Cost to order the data: none

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) shapefile format. The user must have software capable of uncompressing the WinZip file and displaying the shapefile. In lieu of ArcView or ArcGIS, the user may utilize another GIS application package capable of importing the data. A free data viewer, ArcExplorer, capable of displaying the data is available from ESRI at www.esri.com.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Brian Andrews
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2348 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bandrews@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2012-1006/VS_BackscatterTracklines.shp.faq.html>
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