Physiographic Shell Zones of the Sea Floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (BuzzardsBay_ShellZones, polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Physiographic Shell Zones of the Sea Floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (BuzzardsBay_ShellZones, polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84)
Abstract:
Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Foster, David S., 2014, Physiographic Shell Zones of the Sea Floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (BuzzardsBay_ShellZones, polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84): Open-File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Foster, David S., Baldwin, Wayne E., Barnhardt, Walter A., Schwab, William C., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., and Pendleton, Elizabeth A., 2014, Shallow Geology, Sea-Floor Texture, Physiographic Zones of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.944425
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.652979
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.680620
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.448175
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1220/GIS_catalog/PhysiographicZones/shellzones_browse.png (PNG)
    Image of the physiographic Shell Zone shapefile for Buzzards Bay
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-2004
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of the source data that this interpretation is based on
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • G-polygon (6)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    BuzzardsBay_ShellZones
    Physiographic shell zones shapefile for Buzzards Bay (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    Pzone_name
    Areas mapped physiographic shell zones where high concentrations of shells were observed in bottom photographs and areas of high acoustic backscatter. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    ShellsShell Zone areas have significant coverage of carbonate shells. For Buzzards Bay, shell zones were mapped where high densities of slipper shells (Crepidula fornicata) cover the seafloor. These zones are primarily mapped by identifying high acoustic backscatter in areas where surficial sediments are fine grained and verified with bottom photographs. Areas identified include the central Buzzards Bay basin near Quicks Hole, outside of Red Brook Harbor, within and around bathymetric channels north of Penikese Island. Other areas of high concentrations of shell material likely exist but are not identifiable without bottom photographs to verify these areas.
    Area
    Area of feature in kilometers squared based on UTM, Zone 19, WGS84 (Source: Esri)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.040702
    Maximum:7.83683
    Units:square kilometers
    Resolution:0.00001
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Shell Zones (SZ) areas have significant coverage of carbonate shells. For Buzzards Bay, shell zones were mapped where high densities of slipper shells (Crepidula fornicata) cover the sea floor. These zones are primarily mapped by identifying high acoustic backscatter in areas where surficial sediments are fine grained and verified with bottom photographs. Areas identified include the central Buzzards Bay basin near Quicks Hole, outside of Red Brook Harbor, within and around bathymetric channels north of Penikese Island. Other areas of high concentrations of shell material likely exist but are not identifiable without bottom photographs to map these areas. The Shell Zones identified cover 14.8 km2, which is 2% of the Buzzards Bay sea floor by area. Water depths range from 4 to 43 m with a mean depth of 16 m.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • David S. Foster
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This sea-floor physiographic zone was created from geophysical and sample data collected from Buzzards Bay, and is used to characterize the sea floor in the area. Physiographic zone maps are important data layers for marine resource managers charged with protecting fish habitat, delineating marine boundaries, and assessing environmental change due to natural or human impacts. The physiographic zone, shell zone, was mapped separate from all other physiographic zones to avoid overlapping polygons, which would cause issues with the topology editing.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Poppe and others, 2007 (source 1 of 8)
    Poppe, L.J., Ackerman, S.D., Foster, D.S., Blackwood, D.S., Butman, B., Moser, M.S., and Stewart, H.F., 2007, Sea-floor character and surface processes in the vicinity of Quicks Hole, Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1357, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication provides the source geophysical (backscatter and bathymetry) and bottom photographs and sediment samples for the Quicks Hole area of Buzzards Bay. Two 29-foot launches deployed from the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson were used to acquire bathymetric and backscatter data during 2004. The multibeam bathymetric data were collected with hull-mounted 455-kHz RESON 8125 and 240-kHz RESON 8101 systems. The sidescan sonar data were acquired with a hull-mounted Klein 5250 system operating at 100 kHz. Sediment samples and bottom photos were collected aboard the R/V Rafael with a modified Van Veen grab sampler and SEABOSS, respectively.
    Pendleton and others, 2012 (source 2 of 8)
    Pendleton, E.A., Twichell, D.C., Foster, D.S., Worley, C.R, Irwin, B.J., and Danforth, W.W., 2012, High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2011-1184, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided source geophysical (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for the area of Buzzards Bay surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands. Surveying was conducted aboard the RV Rafael in September 2010. Interferometric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and chirp seismic-reflection systems were deployed simultaneously during the cruise. Bathymetric sounding data were collected with an SEA SWATHplus 234-kilohertz (kHz) interferometric sonar system. Sidescan-sonar (acoustic-backscatter) data were acquired with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency (100 and 500 kHz) sidescan-sonar system. High-resolution chirp seismic-reflection profiles were collected using an EdgeTech Geo-Star full spectrum sub-bottom (FSSB) system and SB-424 towfish.
    Turecek and others, 2012 (source 3 of 8)
    Turecek, A.M., Danforth, W.W., Baldwin, W.E., and Barnhardt, W.A., 2012, High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009: Open-File Report 2012-1091, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source geophysical (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles), sediment sample and bottom photograph data for Buzzards Bay in the area of Red Brook Harbor. Surveying was conducted aboard the R/V Rafael. Bathymetric data were collected with an SEA SWATHplus 234-kilohertz (kHz) interferometric sonar system. Acoustic backscatter, a measure of the intensity of returns from an insonified area of the sea floor, was recorded by the SEA SWATHplus interferometric sonar system. Seismic reflection profiles were collected with a Knudsen Engineering, Ltd. (KEL) Chirp 3202 dual-frequency (centered at 3.5- and 200-kHz) Chirp system. The USGS Mini SEABed Observation and Sampling System (Mini SEABOSS) was used to collect digital photography and video and sediment samples
    Ackerman and others, 2013 (source 4 of 8)
    Ackerman, S.D., Andrews, B.D., Foster, D.S., Baldwin, W.E., and Schwab, W.C., 2013, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1002, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source geophysical (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for Buzzards Bay. The mapping was conducted during research cruises aboard the NOAA Ship RUDE (2004), the Megan T. Miller (2009 and 2010) and the Scarlett Isabella (2011). The NOAA Ship RUDE acquired bathymetric soundings in 2004 using a RESON SeaBat 8125 455-kHz multibeam-echosounder system. All other surveys used the following systems: bathymetric data were acquired in the Buzzards Bay survey area using a Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus-M 234-kilohertz (kHz) interferometric sonar system; acoustic backscatter data were collected with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency sidescan-sonar (132 and 445 kHz); chirp seismic-reflection data were collected in the Buzzards Bay survey area using an EdgeTech Geo-Star FSSB subbottom profiling system and an SB-0512i towfish.
    Pendleton and others, 2014 (source 5 of 8)
    Pendleton, E.A., Andrews, B.D., Danforth, W.W., and Foster, D.S., 2014, High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2013-1020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source geophysical (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for Buzzards Bay in the area of Naushon Island and seismic reflection profiles in northeast Buzzards Bay. These areas were surveyed with the RV Rafael in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, seismic-reflection data were acquired with a boomer source and GeoEel 8-channel streamer. Interferometric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Knudsen seismic-reflection systems were deployed simultaneously during cruise 2011. Bathymetry data were collected with an SEA SWATHplus 234-kilohertz (kHz) interferometric sonar system. Sidescan-sonar (acoustic-backscatter) data were acquired with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency (100 and 500 kHz) sidescan-sonar system. of high-resolution chirp seismic data were collected using a dual frequency (3.5 and 200 kHz) Knudsen Engineering Limited (KEL) Chirp 3202 system.
    CZM sample database (source 6 of 8)
    Ford, K.H., Huntley, E.C., Sampson, D.W., and Voss, S., Unpublished Material, Massachusetts Sediment Database.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This sample database has been compiled and vetted from existing samples and datasets by the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. The data are currently unpublished, but may be acquired by contacting the CZM office: 251 Causeway St Boston, MA 02114 (617) 626-1000 czm@state.ma.us
    Type_of_Source_Media: digital vector
    Source_Contribution:
    Sediment sample databases of Ford and Voss (2010) and McMullen and others (2011) were combined then edited and supplemented with NOAA chart sampling data and bottom photos and descriptions by a group of GIS specialists at the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (Emily Huntley, personal communication). These data contained sediment laboratory statistics when available, visual descriptions if sediment analysis was not performed or if the site was a bottom photograph, and classification fields of Barnhardt and others (1998), Shepard (1954), and Wentworth (1922) as well as average sediment statistics and phi size, when laboratory analysis was conducted.
    Poppe and others, 2008 (source 7 of 8)
    Poppe, L.J., McMullen, K.Y., Foster, D.S., Blackwood, D.S., Williams, S.J., Ackerman, S.D., Barnum, S.R., and Brennan, R.T., 2008, Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Open File Report 2008-1004, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication provides the source geophysical (backscatter and bathymetry) and bottom photographs and sediment samples for Woods Hole. Two 29-foot launches deployed from the NOAA Ship Whiting were used to acquire bathymetric and backscatter data during 2001. The bathymetric data were collected with a hull-mounted 240-kHz RESON 8101 shallow-water system aboard launch 1005. The sidescan-sonar data were acquired with a hull-mounted Klein T-5000 system operating at 455 kHz aboard launch 1014. Sediment samples and bottom photos were collected aboard the R/V Rafael with a modified Van Veen grab sampler and SEABOSS, respectively, in 2007.
    Ackerman and others, 2014 (source 8 of 8)
    Ackerman, S.D., Pappal, A.L., Huntley, E.C., Blackwood, D.S., and Schwab, W.C., 2014, Geological Sampling Data and Benthic Biota Classification: Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided high-resolution digital photographs of the Buzzards Bay seafloor. At each station, the USGS SEABOSS was towed approximately one meter off the bottom at speeds of less than one knot. Because the recorded position is actually the position of the GPS antenna on the survey vessel, not the SEABOSS sampler, the estimated horizontal accuracy of the sample location is ± 30 meters (m). Photographs were obtained using a Konica-Minolta DiMAGE A2 digital still camera, and continuous video was collected from a Kongsberg Simrad OE1365 high-resolution color video camera, usually for 5 to 15 minutes. These data were important in defining rocky zones were sediment samples do not exist.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 19-Apr-2013 (process 1 of 7)
    The texture and spatial distribution of sea-floor sediment were qualitatively-analyzed in ArcGIS using several input data sources (listed in the source contribution), including acoustic backscatter, bathymetry, seismic-reflection profile interpretations, bottom photographs, and sediment samples. In order to create the interpretation (with ArcMap version 9.3.1). Then physiographic shell zone polygons were created using the polygon drawing tool. In general, polygon editing was done at scales between 1:5,000 and 1:20,000 depending on the size of the traced feature and the resolution of the source data. Backscatter intensity data (available at 1 m resolution) was the first input. Changes in backscatter amplitude were digitized to outline possible changes in seafloor texture based on acoustic return. Areas of high backscatter (light colors) have strong acoustic reflections and suggests boulders, gravels, and generally coarse seafloor sediments. Low-backscatter areas (dark colors) have weak acoustic reflections and are generally characterized by finer grained material such as muds and fine sands; however, high concentrations of carbonate shells on the sea floor appear as high-backscatter areas. Polygons were drawn only where bottom photographs confirmed high concentrations of shells on the sea floor. Person who carried out this activity:
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-5488700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • All
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 7)
    The graphic polygons were converted to a shapefile using XTools Pro (version 7.1) Feature Conversions, Convert Graphics to Shapes. A new field was created in the shapefile called 'Pzone_name'. The attribute value "Shells" was added to the field Pzone_name. Area in square kilometers was defined using the calculate geometry function from the attribute table using the data frame projection (UTM Zone 19N, WGS84). Person who carried out this activity:
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
    Date: 2013 (process 3 of 7)
    The shapefile and the polygons were reprojected from UTM Zone 19N, WGS84 to GCS WGS84. Person who carried out this activity:
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
    Date: 12-May-2016 (process 4 of 7)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Empty fields were deleted. Links to the data were fixed. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 5 of 7)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 6 of 7)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 7 of 7)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Kelley, J.T., Barnhardt, W.A., Belknap, D.F., Dickson, S.M., and Kelley, A.R., 1998, The Seafloor Revealed: The Geology of the Northwestern Gulf of Maine Inner Continental Shelf: Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-6, Maine Geological Survey, Natural Resources Information and Mapping Center, Augusta, Maine.

    Online Links:

    Ford, K.H., and Voss, S.E, 2010, Seafloor Sediment Composition in Massachusetts Determined Using Point Data: Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries Technical Report TR-45, Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, New Bedford, MA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    These data were produced qualitatively from acoustic and bottom photographic data. Horizontal uncertainty associated with bottom photograph collection is comparable to positional uncertainty associated with acoustic data (usually less than <10's of meters). These qualitatively derived polygons outlining sea floor features are estimated to be within 50 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    There are no vertical attributes associated with these data.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These physiographic shell zones are defined for areas where source data exists.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    These data were drawn and vetted for accuracy using the source input rasters and point sample data described in the processing steps and source contributions.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Not to be used for navigation. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information. Additionally, there are limitations associated with qualitative sediment mapping interpretations. Because of the scale of the source geophysical data and the spacing of samples, not all changes in sea floor texture are captured. The data were mapped between 1:5,000 and 1:20,000, but the recommended scale for application of these data is 1:25,000. Not all digitized sea floor features contained sample information, so often the sea floor texture is characterized by the nearest similar feature that contains a sample. Conversely, sometimes a digitized feature contained multiple samples and not all of the samples within the feature were in agreement (of the same texture). In these cases the dominant sediment texture was chosen to represent the primary texture for the polygon. Samples from rocky areas often only consist of bottom photographs, because large particle size often prevents the recovery of a sediment sample. Bottom photo classification can be subjective, such that determining the sediment type that is greater than 50% of the view frame is estimated by the interpreter and may differ among interpreters. Bottom photo transects often reveal changes in the sea floor over distances of less than 100 m and these changes are often not observable in acoustic data. Heterogeneous sea floor texture can change very quickly, and many small-scale changes will not be detectable or mappable at a scale of 1:25,000. The boundaries of polygons are often inferred based on sediment samples, and even boundaries that are traced based on amplitude changes in geophysical data are subject to migration. Polygon boundaries should be considered an approximation of the location of a change in texture.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri) shapefile format. The user must have software capable of importing and processing this data type.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: David S. Foster
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
dfoster@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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