Hillshaded-relief image produced from the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Hillshaded-relief image produced from the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)
Abstract:
Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Baldwin, Wayne, 2016, Hillshaded-relief image produced from the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84): Open-File Report 2016-1119, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Baldwin, Wayne E., Foster, David S., Pendleton, Elizabeth A., Barnhardt, Walter A., Schwab, William C., Andrews, Brian D., and Ackerman, Seth D., 2016, Shallow Geology, Sea-Floor Texture, and Physiographic Zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2016-1119, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.033868
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.429605
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.540787
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.320018
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1119/GIS_catalog/Stratigraphy/vnsurnavd88hs/vnsurnavd88hs.png (PNG)
    Browse image of Hillshaded-relief GeoTIFF produced from the ESRI grid representing the depth to the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 02-Jun-2009
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of the source data from which this interpretation was created
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 588 x 1251 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 40.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 40.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with this 8-bit GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain hillshade relief values between 157 and 199.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Wayne Baldwin
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This data set contains a hillshaded-relief image produced from the Esri grid representing depth to the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds (vnsurnavd88). These data are useful for assessing relations between geologic framework and sea-bed morphology. The late Wisconsinan regressive unconformity (Ur) locally merges with Holocene transgressive unconformity (Ut) and defines the upper surface of glacial deposits.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Pendleton and others, 2012 (source 1 of 3)
    Pendleton, E.A., Twichell, D.C., Foster, D.S., Worley, C.R, Irwin, B.J., and Danforth, W.W., 2012, High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2011-1184, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided source geophysical data (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for the area of Vineyard Sound surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands. High-resolution chirp seismic-reflection profiles were collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2010-003-FA using an EdgeTech Geo-Star full spectrum sub-bottom (FSSB) system and SB-424 towfish. Thorough descriptions of acquisition and processing parameters for the survey are provided by Pendleton and others (2012) in the methods section and seismic-reflection metadata. Shallow geologic framework and surficial geology were interpreted from post-processed chirp seismic-reflection profiles.
    Andrews and others, 2014 (source 2 of 3)
    Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., Baldwin, W.E., Foster, D.S., and Schwab, W.C., 2014, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided source geophysical data (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for most of the Vineyard and western Nantucket Sound Study area. The mapping was conducted onboard the Megan T. Miller (2009, 2010) and the Scarlett Isabella (2011) during U.S. Geological Survey field activities 2009-002-FA , 2010-004-FA, and 2011-004-FA. Chirp seismic-reflection data were collected using an EdgeTech Geo-Star FSSB subbottom profiling system and an SB-0512i towfish. Thorough descriptions of acquisition and processing parameters for each survey are provided by Andrews and others (2014) in the methods section and seismic-reflection metadata. Shallow geologic framework was interpreted from post-processed chirp seismic-reflection profiles
    Pendleton and others, 2014 (source 3 of 3)
    Pendleton, E.A., Andrews, B.D., Danforth, W.W., and Foster, D.S., 2014, High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2013-1020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided source geophysical data (sidescan, bathymetry, and seismic-reflection profiles) for several of the shallowest areas of Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds, across Middleground, L'Hommedieu, and Hedge Fence Shoals, as well as several supplemental boomer seismic-reflection profiles. These areas were surveyed with the RV Rafael in 2010 and 2011 during U.S. Geological Survey field activities 2010-047-FA, 2010-100-FA, and 2011-013-FA. In 2010, seismic-reflection data were acquired with a boomer source and GeoEel 8-channel streamer. In 2011, high-resolution chirp seismic data were collected using a dual frequency (3.5 and 200 kHz) Knudsen Engineering Limited (KEL) Chirp 3202 system. Thorough descriptions of acquisition and processing parameters for each survey are provided by Pendleton and others (2014) in the methods section and seismic-reflection metadata. Shallow geologic framework and surficial geology were interpreted from post-processed chirp seismic-reflection profiles.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2013 (process 1 of 4)
    The hillshade relief image was produced from the Esri grid representing the depth to the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds (vnsurnavd88) using ArcMap (9.3.1) Spatial Analyst > Surface Analysis > Hillshade, with specified azimuth of 45, altitude of 45, and z-factor of 1. The resultant hillshade grid was converted to a GeoTIFF image by right clicking on the grid in the table of contents and choosing "export data". Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • vnsurnavd88
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 2 of 4)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 30-Jan-2019 (process 3 of 4)
    Fixed a broken link and added the DOI link. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 4 of 4)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    O'Hara, Charles J., and Oldale, Robert N., 1980, Maps showing geology and shallow structure of eastern Rhode Island Sound and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1186, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 5 sheets
    O'Hara, Charles J., and Oldale, Robert N., 1987, Maps showing geology, shallow structure, and bedforms of Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1911, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 4 sheets

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigational accuracy of the seismic-reflection data used for this interpretation was assumed to be ± 10 to 20 meters. Refer to seismic trackline metadata in Pendleton and others (2012; 2014), and Andrews and others (2014) for specific seismic data acquisition parameters and accuracy reports. Additional navigational uncertainty in this interpretation arises from subjective digitizing of the seismic reflectors, sampling of the interpreted horizons at 20-m along track intervals prior to export from the seismic interpretation package.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All chirp and boomer seismic-reflection data collected within the study area during USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activities 2009-002-FA, 2010-003-FA, 2010-004-FA, 2010-047-FA, 2010-100-FA, 2011-004-FA, and 2011-013-FA were used to interpret the subsurface geologic units. The grid contains three internal no data zones where it was not possible to make interpretations regarding the thicknesses of subsurface units. No seismic data were collected within the no data area coincident with Middle Ground shoal, thus precluding interpretation. The Knudsen Engineering Limited (KEL) Chirp 3202 data collected across the shallowest portions of L'Hommedieu and Hedge Fence Shoals provided inadequate combinations of resolution and penetration to support confident interpretation, due to shallow water depths and difficult to penetrate sandy, gravelly substrate.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Chirp seismic-reflection data collected during USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activities 2009-002-FA, 2010-003-FA, 2010-004-FA, 2011-004-FA, and 2011-013-FA and boomer seismic-reflection data during USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center field activities 2010-047-FA and 2010-100-FA were used to interpret the geologic framework of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? vnsurnavd88hs.zip from USGS Open-File report 2016-1119. WinZip file v. 14.5 contains a hillshaded-relief GeoTIFF produced from the Esri grid representing the depth to the late Wisconsinan to early Holocene regressive unconformity (Ur) beneath Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds (vnsurnavd88).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The image contained in the zip file is available as a GeoTIFF. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, or an image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Wayne Baldwin
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
wbaldwin@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2016-1119/vnsurnavd88hs.tif.faq.html>
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