Oceanographic Observations made near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, as part of the Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project; January-May 2009

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Oceanographic Observations made near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, as part of the Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project; January-May 2009
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is leading an effort to understand the regional sediment dynamics along the coastline of North and South Carolina. As part of the mulit-disciplinary Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project, we are examining the interactions between oceanographic forcing, geologic conditions, and the resulting changes to topography in the inner shelf, nearshore, and subaerial beach regions. This dataset presents data from an oceanographic field study from January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the dynamics of sediment transport at Diamond Shoals, NC. For more information see https://www.usgs.gov/centers/whcmsc/science/coastal-change-processes, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fa=2009-003-FA and https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fa=2009-014-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Armstrong, Brandy N.G., Warner, John C., Voulgaris, George, List, Jeffrey H., Thieler, E. Robert, Martini, Marinna A., and Montgomery, Ellyn T., 2011, Oceanographic Observations made near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, as part of the Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project; January-May 2009: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: This applies to the data distribution site for an experiment.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.492040
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.376055
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: +35.178630
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: +35.098985
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: Jan-2009
    Ending_Date: May-2009
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of data collection
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Brandy N.G. Armstrong
    • John C. Warner
    • George Voulgaris
    • Jeffrey H. List
    • E. Robert Thieler
    • Marinna A. Martini
    • Ellyn T. Montgomery
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    This research was funded by the Carolinas Coastal Change Project, a study supported by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. We thank the captains and crews of the R/V Connecticut for their outstanding logistical support for this field measurement program.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    John C. Warner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    United States

    (508) 457-8700 x2237 (voice)
    jcwarner@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset provides information for an oceanographic field study that occurred from January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, NC. Tripods were deployed at three sites along the outer perimeter of the shoal. Mounted on the tripods were instruments to measure surface waves, pressure, current velocity, bottom turbulence, suspended-sediment profiles, and sea-floor sand-ripple bedforms; one tripod also held a visual camera system. The measurements will be used to explore the oceanographic and sediment-transport processes responsible for maintaining the and distributing sand on the shoal. The background and experimental setup are described in the open file report "Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project Data Report for Observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009", on line at: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/. The locations, deployment depths, sensor type and parameters measured during the deployment are presented in the table displayed by the Basic Sampling Interval link on the stellwagen server ( https://stellwagen.er.usgs.gov/diamondshoals-a.html ).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2009 (process 1 of 6)
    FIELD PROGRAM Instruments to measure water flow, sea level, conductivity, temperature, surface wave characteristics, near-bottom turbulence, suspended sediment concentrations, and sea floor bedforms (ripples) were deployed and recovered at roughly three locations off of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina from January 2009 through May 2009.
    
    
    The North Site had three instrument deployments:
    
    
    North Flobee at 35.17863N, 75.42292W at a water depth of 14.7 meters - instruments include Acoustic Doppler Current Profile (ADCP), Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBSs), Acoustic Backscatter Sensor System (ABSS), Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP), Sontek hydra system, Seatech transmissometers, Paroscientific (Paros) Pressure Sensors, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a Sea-Bird MicroCAT.
    
    
    North Minipod at 35.1783° N, 75.423355° W at a water depth of 14.8 meters - instruments include ADCP, time series visual image camera with flash, pencil beam and rotating sonar imaging system, Sea-Bird SEACAT, transmissometer, laser in-situ scattering and transmissometer instrument (LISST), and an Aquadopp Acoustic Profiler.
    
    
    North Surface mooring at 35.177867N, 75.422617W at water surface - instruments include ARGOS (Seimac CML) and Iridium (Xeos melo) satellite beacons on the buoys to track position, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, a Sea-Bird MicroCAT and a pressure and temperature sensor (PT).
    
    
    South Sites with two deployments:
    
    
    South Flobee at 35.12958N, 75.49204W at water depth 14.0 meters - instruments include ADCP, ADVs, OBSs, an ABS system, a PCADP, Sontek hydra system, Seatech transmissometers, Paros pressure sensors, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a Sea-Bird MicroCAT.
    
    
    South Surface Mooring at 35.12895N, 75.49187W at water surface - instruments include ARGOS (Seimac CML) and Iridium (Xeos melo) satellite beacons on the buoys to track position, a Sea-Bird SEACAT, and a PT.
    
    
    Tip Site:
    
    
    Tip Micropod at 35.098985N, 75.376055W at water depth 23.7 meters - instruments include upward looking ADCP, Sea-Bird SEACAT, and Seatech transmissometer.
    
    
    The instruments were deployed and recovered aboard the R/V Connecticut, a research vessel owned and operated by the University of Connecticut. Ellyn Montgomery is the contact for this process step and the subsequent process step. Person who carried out this activity:
    Ellyn Montgomery
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    United States

    508-457-8700 x2356 (voice)
    emontgomery@usgs.gov
    Date: 2009 (process 2 of 6)
    DATA PROCESSING Data processing was conducted using the proprietary software for each instrument, and (or) specialized software developed by the USGS. The proprietary software was often used to download data from the instruments and export the data to ASCII-files. Post-processing of the raw binary or ASCII files was accomplished using USGS software developed in the MATLAB (http://www.mathworks.com/) programming language. Most MATLAB M-files used for post-processing are available via the World Wide Web (WWW) (links provided). Those that are not available via the WWW are included in this report (see the Matlab m-files page available in https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/ ). Data were first decoded and calibrated from instrument-specific formats and units to the EPIC-standard NetCDF format (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/epic/) and scientific units. Data were carefully checked for instrument malfunctions and then edited. The beginning and end of each data series were truncated to remove data collected out of water. The data were carefully checked at each stage of processing. After final editing, the best basic version of the data file includes all variables recorded at the basic sampling interval. Best basic versions of the data in NetCDF are provided. These data have been edited to remove outlying points and data recorded when the instruments were out of the water before and after deployment. Biological fouling often degrades acoustical and optical data after several months of deployment. Organisms grow on the instrument transducers and gradually block acoustical pulses and light transmission, which results in a gradual upward drift of the beam attenuation coefficient. Care has been exercised to remove most data that have been affected by biofouling. There was significant tilt of the ADCP at the North Flobee site when the tripod tipped in mid April. The velocity data have been removed for this latter portion of this ADCP file, but pressure and temperature data are available for the whole period. A change in the deployment depth at the Tip Micropod site resulted in data that did not reach the surface for that site. All data should be used and interpreted with care.
    Date: 12-Jul-2016 (process 3 of 6)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Fixed the online link to a cross-reference. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 4 of 6)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 31-Jan-2019 (process 5 of 6)
    Fixed broken links and made compatible with the file served on stellwagen. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 6 of 6)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Montgomery, E.T., Martini, M.A., Lightsom, F.L., and Butman, Bradford, 2008, Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database: Open-File Report 2007-1194, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Armstrong, Brandy N.G., Warner, John C., Voulgaris, George, List, Jeffrey H., Thieler, E. Robert, Martini, Marinna A., and Montgomery, Ellyn T., 2011, Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project Data Report forObservations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009: Open-File Report 2011-1156, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The mooring deployment locations (latitude and longitude) were recorded based on the R/V Connecticut's onboard GPS. Specification are available at http://marinesciences.uconn.edu/mstc/vesselops/rvct/.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Bottom-mounted sensors have instrument_height attributes (meters above bottom) measured prior to deployment. The sensor height above bottom is accurate to within 1 cm, but the depth (representing the initial measurement depth) is only accurate to about 1 meter due to tidal fluctuations and use of nominal water depth. If the sensor acquires data in bins by depth (ADCP, PCADP), those depths are accurate to a few centimeters relative to each other. Sedimentation or scouring around the platform may change the vertical position over the course of a deployment by as much as 20 cm. The data are not adjusted to reflect any temporal changes in elevation of the sensor.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The data have been edited to remove outlying points and data recorded when the instruments were out of the water before and after deployment. Additionally, one tripod (North Flobee) tipped over near mid-April. The velocity and other data made unusable by this tilt were removed. The Tip Micropod was deployed deeper than planned, resulting in velocity depth bins that did not reach the surface, thus no wave data was produced at this site.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Data are logically consistent

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Data presented within this publication are in the public domain. Please acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal Marine Geology Program as the source of this data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    John C. Warner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    (508) 457-8700 x2237 (voice)
    jcwarner@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data available from https://stellwagen.er.usgs.gov/diamondshoals.html or from links within the Open File Report: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1156/.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The user's computer must have software to read netCDF files or import OPeNDAP.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Ellyn T. Montgomery
U.S. Geological Survey
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA
United States

(508) 457-8700 x2356 (voice)
emontgomery@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/stellwagen/hatt09_meta2.faq.html>
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