Raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, on May 14, 2009, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: John F. Bratton
Originator: VeeAnn A. Cross
Publication_Date: 2018
Title:
Raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, on May 14, 2009, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital files
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/F7DR2TSX
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7DR2TSX
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: John F. Bratton
Originator: VeeAnn A. Cross
Publication_Date: 2018
Title:
Continuous Resistivity Profiling Data and Associated Data from Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island collected in 2009, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital files
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/F7DR2TSX
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Suggested citation: Bratton, J.F., and Cross, V.A., 2018, Continuous resistivity profiling data and associated data from Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island collected in 2009, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7DR2TSX.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7DR2TSX
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
As part of a larger investigation to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, a geophysical survey was conducted from a small research boat on 14-15 May 2009. The specific research objective was to gain an improved understanding of the role of direct groundwater discharge in delivery of excess nitrogen to the bay, which may have contributed to the development of low-oxygen conditions in waters of the bay and associated fish kills. Data collected in this survey included digital navigation information, continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data, and point salinity measurements. The CRP method is a survey and data processing approach that is sensitive to differences in electrical properties of surface water and underlying porewater in sediments that have contrasting salinities. During the survey, Greenwich Bay salinity was approximately 27 ppm, so surface water would be expected to have low electrical resistivity (high conductivity), and any areas of active groundwater discharge from less salty aquifer sources would yield relatively higher resistivity values. This survey is identified as field activity 09021 (also referenced as 2009-021-FA) by the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and additional information is available from: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2009-021-FA.
Purpose:
The purpose of this dataset is to provide the raw continuous resistivity profile data collected by the USGS on May 14, 2009 in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island using the AGI SuperSting system.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 20090514
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.452350
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.391017
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.696383
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.651083
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Theme_Keyword: CMGP
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Theme_Keyword: WHCMSC
Theme_Keyword: Field Activity Number 2009-021-FA
Theme_Keyword: Info Bank ID B-21-09-RI
Theme_Keyword: navigation
Theme_Keyword: bathymetry
Theme_Keyword: water temperature
Theme_Keyword: continuous resistivity profiling
Theme_Keyword: CRP
Theme_Keyword: Lowrance GPS
Theme_Keyword: AGI SuperSting
Theme_Keyword: raw data
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: submarine groundwater
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: elevation
Theme_Keyword: location
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: continuous resistivity profiling
Theme_Keyword: marine geophysics
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: Greenwich Bay
Place_Keyword: Narragansett Bay
Place_Keyword: Warwick, RI
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
The public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows Vista Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.1.4095
Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Each file was looked at individually, but the files as a collection were handled in the same manner. All files on May 14, 2009 were collected with a 50-m resistivity streamer. The command file (*.cmd) used for data acquisition has a 1 meter electrode spacing. To adjust to the actual 5 meter spacing between electrodes of the 50-m streamer, a scaling factor of 5 was applied during data acquisition.
Completeness_Report:
All data collected on this day are included. There are no lines 1-4, there were battery problems during data collection. Line 18 had to be split into three separate parts to be processed due to gaps in the navigation. Both the original file, as well as the split files are included in this dataset.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The navigation system used was a Lowrance 480M with an LGC-2000 Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna. The antenna was located 1.5 meters forward of the resistivity streamer tow point and directly above the fathometer transducer. The GPS is assumed to be accurate to within 10 meters.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
All bathymetry values were acquired by the 200 kHz Lowrance fathometer. The fathometer was mounted on the starboard side of the University of Rhode Island pontoon boat, directly below the GPS antenna. The Lowrance manufacturer indicates the speed of sound used by the system to calculate depth is 4800 feet/second. The depth values are not corrected for the approximately 0.2 m transducer draft. All depth values are assumed to be accurate to within 1 meter.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: John F. Bratton
Publication_Date: 2015
Title: Raw CRP data
Type_of_Source_Media: disk
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 20090514
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Raw CRP data
Source_Contribution:
The continuous resistivity profile (CRP) system used on this cruise was an AGI SuperSting marine system described at the website: www.agiusa.com/marinesystem.shtml. Two streamer systems were used during this field activity - a 50-m streamer and a 100-m streamer. The 50-m streamer has an 11 electrode array with electrodes spaced 5 meters apart. The 100-m streamer has an 11 electrode array with electrodes spaced 10 meters apart. In both cases the source electrodes are graphite, while the receiver electrodes are stainless steel. A dipole-dipole configuration was used for the data collection in which two fixed current electrodes are assigned with the measurement of voltage potential between electrode pairs in the remaining electrodes. The maximum depth below the water surface the streamer can reach is approximately 1/4 the streamer length. So for the 50-m streamer, maximum depth is about 12.5 meters while the 100-m streamer maximum depth is about 25 meters. Each line of data acquisition records several files. The two files necessary for processing are the *.stg and the *.gps file. The STG file contains the resistivity data, while the GPS file contains the navigation information. The navigation system used in concert with the CRP system is a Lowrance LMS-480M with an LGC-2000 GPS antenna and a 200 kHz fathometer transducer. The antenna and fathometer transducer were mounted on the starboard side of the boat. The streamer tow point was on the port side aft. The layback offset between the navigation antenna and the first electrode was 16.5 meters. This layback offset was not accounted for during data acquisition, so was entered during processing of the data. The approximately 2.5 m lateral offset between the streamer tow point and the navigation antenna is not accounted for. The Lowrance transducer also contains a temperature sensor that records temperature in degrees Celsius. For depth measurements, Lowrance indicates the speed of sound used by the system is 4800 feet/second, but depths are recorded in meters. Both the temperature and depth information are recorded in the logged GPS file. The CRP system images the subsurface electrical properties of an estuarine, riverine or lacustrine environment. Resistivity differences can be attributed to subsurface geology (conductive vs less conductive layers) and hydrogeologic conditions with fresh water exhibiting high resistivity and saline conditions showing low resistivity.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The acquisition controlling command file (*.cmd) was set up indicating an electrode spacing of 1 meter. At the time of data acquisition, a scaling factor of 5 was used to reflect the actual 5 meter electrode spacing of the streamer. The data were transferred from the logging computer using AGISSAdmin software version 1.3.4.198. These files were then emailed from the field to the USGS office in Woods Hole in a single zip file. The data files included in this release are the *.crs, *.cmd, *.gps, and *.stg. The two files essential for processing are the GPS and STG files. The GPS file contains the navigation, and in the case of the Lowrance system also includes water depth and water temperature. The STG file contains the resistivity measurements from each of the electrodes. The CRS file contains the contact resistance readings. The CMD file contains the parameters for data collection. These last two files aren't necessary for data processing, but can be useful in terms of troubleshooting. The field collection and data transfer were done by Chuck Worley of the USGS.
Process_Date: 20090514
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Charles Worley
Contact_Position: Physical Scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2250
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2313
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: cworley@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
First, the navigation in the GPS files was checked. One file - L18F1 - had several navigation gaps. This file was split into 3 parts effectively eliminating the navigation gaps. The gaps would cause problems in processing of the data. Additionally, the navigation in the GPS files was inspected visually. This was done by quickly parsing the GPS text files into comma-delimited text files with a header line, and then viewing the files in ArcMap 9.2. The AWK scripts used to parse the navigation was awkhold.

awkhold:

BEGIN {
FS = ","
}
{
FS = ","
ARGC = 2
depth = -9999
temp = -9999
if (NR==1)
	{
	#printf("utctime, longitude, latitude, depth_m, temp_c, line\n")
	}
if ($1=="$GPRMC")
	{
	utctime = $2
	latdeg = substr($4,1,2)
	latmin = substr($4,3,6)
	declat = latdeg + (latmin/60)
	londeg = substr($6,1,3)
	lonmin = substr($6,4,6)
	declon = -1 * (londeg + (lonmin/60))
	if (NR==1) {
		holddepth = -9999
		holdtemp = -9999
		}
	else {
		printf("%s, %9.6f, %9.6f, %5.1f, %5.1f, %s\n", holdutctime, >holddeclon, holddeclat, holddepth, holdtemp, ARGV[2])
	}
	holdutctime = utctime
	holddeclon = declon
	holddeclat = declat
	holddepth = -9999
	holdtemp = -9999
	}
if ($1=="$SDDPT")
	{
	depthreal = $2
	holddepth = depthreal
	}
if ($1=="$SDMTW")
	{
	tempreal = $2
	holdtemp = tempreal
	}
}
END {
printf("%s, %9.6f, %9.6f, %5.1f, %5.1f, %s\n", holdutctime, holddeclon, holddeclat, >holddepth, holdtemp, ARGV[2])
}

This file was executed by a shell script to effectively batch process all the files in a single folder with the extension gps. The batch processor was dohold.

dohold:

files=`ls *.gps | cut -d. -f1`
for file in $files
do
	awk -f awkhold $file.gps $file >> may14_09_gps.txt
done

Under Cygwin, all of the hold files were concatenated into a single comma-delimited text file and a header line added to the file. The header line added to the text file was: gpstime, longitude, latitude, depth_m, temp_c, line. Using ArcMap 9.2 - Tools - Add XY Data, the comma-delimited text file was added as an event theme to ArcMap. No erroneous points were detected.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Raw CRP data
Process_Date: 2009
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Depth_System_Definition:
Depth_Datum_Name: Local surface
Depth_Resolution: 0.1
Depth_Distance_Units: meters
Depth_Encoding_Method: Implicit coordinate
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Resource_Description:
The2009-021-FA_may14_rawres.zip file contains the raw continuous resistivity data from May 14, 2009 (folder 2009-021-FA_may14_rawres). This includes the *.cmd, *.crs, *.gps, and *.stg files. Additionally, the zip file contains FGDC CSDGM metadata in the following formats: XML, HTML, and text.
Distribution_Liability:
Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: AGI Marine Log Manager 1.3.4
Format_Information_Content:
The zip file contains all the raw CRP data from May 14, 2009 as well as the associated metadata files.
Transfer_Size: 0.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information: Access_Instructions:
The first link downloads the data directly, the second link is to the landing page of the data.
Fees: None
Technical_Prerequisites:
The user must have software capable of extracting the data from the zip file, as well as reading and processing the resistivity data.
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20180403
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time

Generated by mp version 2.9.46 on Tue Apr 03 16:49:54 2018