Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

Online link https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/pcmsc/SeriesReports/DS_DDS/DS_781/SanFrancisco/BackscatterA_8101_2004_OffshoreSanFrancisco_metadata.faq.html
Description This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids depending on mapping system used and processing techniques. The raster data file is included in "BackscatterA_8101_2004_OffshoreSanFrancisco.zip," which is accessible from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/781/OffshoreSanFrancisco/data_catalog_OffshoreSanFrancisco.html. The acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco Map Area, California was generated from backscatter data collected by Fugro Pelagos and by California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB). Mapping was completed between 2004 and 2008, using a combination of 400-kHz Reson 7125 and 244-kHz Reson 8101 multibeam echosounders. Within the final imagery, brighter tones indicate higher backscatter intensity, and darker tones indicate lower backscatter intensity. The intensity represents a complex interaction between the acoustic pulse and the seafloor, as well as characteristics within the shallow subsurface, providing a general indication of seafloor texture and composition. Backscatter intensity depends on the acoustic source level; the frequency used to image the seafloor; the grazing angle; the composition and character of the seafloor, including grain size, water content, bulk density, and seafloor roughness; and some biological cover. Harder and rougher bottom types such as rocky outcrops or coarse sediment typically return stronger intensities (high backscatter, lighter tones), whereas softer bottom types such as fine sediment return weaker intensities (low backscatter, darker tones). [More]
Originators Dartnell, Peter; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Bretz, Carrie K.; and Golden, Nadine E.

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