Descriptors from USGS Thesaurus

The list below shows the descriptors of the chosen thesaurus, with the number of catalog records in which the descriptor appears.

methods (4391)
computational methods (570)
image analysis (153)
structure from motion (99)
relative abundance analysis (5)
spatial analysis (268)
geospatial analysis (214)
contouring (53)
statistical analysis (27)
kriging
multivariate statistical analysis
regression analysis
time series analysis (15)
topological analysis
visualization methods (32)
acid-base accounting
field methods (2582)
field experiments (8)
tracer study (1)
field inventory and monitoring (2122)
borehole logging (6)
borehole temperature logging (5)
electrical resistivity logging
gamma-ray logging
CTD measurement (84)
ecosystem monitoring (2)
long-term ecological monitoring
electromagnetic surveying (174)
ground penetrating radar (11)
magnetotelluric surveying
continuous resistivity profiling (161)
electrical resistivity imaging (3)
handheld field spectroscopy
seismic methods (409)
seismic networking
seismic reflection methods (408)
sub-bottom profiling (347)
seismic refraction methods
sonar methods (1386)
single-beam echo sounder (228)
multibeam sonar (487)
interferometric sonar (196)
sidescan sonar (525)
stream-gage measurement (1)
telemetry
tiltmeter measurement
video monitoring (20)
vocalization methods
animal and plant census (2)
gravimeter measurement (59)
magnetometer measurement (65)
optical methods (13)
tomography (1)
acoustic doppler current profiling (8)
statistical surveying (1)
field sampling (251)
animal tracking
capturing (animals)
drilling and coring (117)
box coring (1)
gravity coring (20)
piston coring (26)
augering (4)
push coring (29)
rotary drilling (4)
vibracoring (35)
plant and animal tagging
plot sampling (3)
sexing (plants & animals)
specimen collecting (5)
transect sampling (60)
trenching
water sampling (12)
dredge sampling (10)
grab sampling (55)
geolocation measurement (595)
altimetry measurement
bathymetry measurement (422)
GPS measurement (279)
land surveying
LORAN-C navigation (1)
real-time monitoring and reporting (3)
laboratory methods (396)
chemical analysis (91)
atomic absorption analysis (1)
chromatography (3)
gas chromatography (3)
liquid chromatography
DNA sequencing (5)
electrophoresis
flow cytometry
mass spectroscopy (17)
neutron activation analysis
particle-beam spectroscopy
polymerase chain reaction
x-ray diffraction (8)
atomic emission spectroscopy (2)
x-ray fluorescence (4)
core analysis (98)
culturing (specimens)
faunal and floral census (microscopic) (4)
grain-size analysis (174)
sieve-size analysis (5)
isotopic analysis (58)
light stable isotope analysis (18)
beryllium isotope analysis
carbon isotope analysis (14)
oxygen isotope analysis (1)
tritium analysis (1)
radiometric dating (43)
carbon-14 analysis (20)
rubidium-strontium analysis
uranium-lead analysis (1)
uranium-thorium analysis (2)
potassium-argon analysis
meristics
microscopy (1)
electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
optical microscopy (1)
microtomy
paleomagnetic analysis (1)
Curie temperature analysis
laboratory-induced magnetization analysis
magnetic hysteresis analysis
magnetic susceptibility analysis
natural remanent magnetization analysis
petrography (2)
plant and animal testing (1)
therapeutic methods
tree ring analysis
camera calibration
age estimation methods (5)
fission-track dating
luminescence dating (3)
tephrochronology
sclerochronology (2)
subsampling (4)
laboratory experiments (13)
management methods (136)
decision support methods
ecosystem services valuation
environmental assessment (7)
TMDL
hazard preparedness
earthquake preparedness
aviation safety
information technology methods (22)
data management (20)
improvement of scientific data usability
data preservation
data rescue
metadata management
digitization (20)
information system administration
database administration
network administration
information system security
data communication
social network development
web interface development
data packaging
web service development
markup and query language development
data integration
information architecture
knowledge organization system development
software development (1)
natural resource management (50)
biological population management
fishery management
reintroduction (organisms)
wildlife population management
game management
pest control
controlled flooding
ecosystem management (12)
natural resource assessment
remediation (7)
bioremediation
water resource management
watershed management
fire control
controlled fires
beach nourishment (30)
risk assessment (56)
earthquake probabilities
landslide susceptibility assessment
volcanic eruption prediction
mitigation of coastal hazards (1)
hard shoreline stabilization
soft shoreline stabilization
coastal infrastructure relocation
adaptive management
photography (212)
underwater photography (162)
remote sensing (735)
aerial photography (221)
aeromagnetic surveying
aeroradiometric surveying
hyperspectral imaging
IFSAR
infrared imaging
AVHRR
AVIRIS
lidar (341)
microwave imaging
SMMR
SSM/I
multispectral imaging (8)
panchromatic imaging
radar imaging
SLAR
doppler radar imaging
thermal imaging
visible light imaging (34)
videography (29)
scientific interpretation (222)
environmental proxies (1)
modeling (237)
mathematical modeling (223)
mathematical simulation (1)
conceptual modeling
state and transition modeling
physical modeling
product types (4109)
catalogs and indexes (2)
bibliographies
directories
gazetteers (2)
datasets (3401)
geospatial datasets (3305)
digital elevation models (503)
navigational data (863)
study areas (80)
hydrographic datasets
time series datasets (81)
profiles (10)
reports
checklists
guidebooks
manuals
standards
conference proceedings
strategic plans
image collections (1071)
image mosaics (740)
maps and atlases (311)
geologic maps (27)
topographic maps (85)
posters
scientific software (1)
official communications
news releases
policies and regulations
speeches and testimony
videos (76)
materials standards
presentation materials
sound recordings
animations (2)
terminologies and classifications
geologic time scales
field activity logs (69)
sciences (4034)
earth sciences (4003)
atmospheric sciences (1)
climatology
meteorology (1)
geochemistry (176)
soil chemistry (11)
water chemistry (100)
marine chemistry (93)
geography (48)
cartography (1)
paleogeography
geology (1842)
economic geology
geochronology (1)
geomorphology (676)
hydrogeology (8)
marine geology (1210)
mineralogy (1)
petrology
sedimentology (27)
stratigraphy (4)
biostratigraphy (1)
lithostratigraphy
structural geology (50)
volcanology
geophysics (2016)
geodesy
marine geophysics (1842)
seismology (2)
paleoseismology (2)
tectonophysics
glaciology (1)
hydrology (20)
hydrodynamics (10)
limnology (11)
ocean sciences (230)
paleoceanography (9)
paleontology (21)
invertebrate paleontology
micropaleontology (21)
paleobotany
vertebrate paleontology
soil sciences (14)
engineering sciences
engineering geology
hydraulic engineering
information sciences (2)
biological informatics
computer science
life sciences (127)
anatomy and physiology
endocrinology
histology
immunology
aquatic biology (27)
biochemistry (3)
botany (3)
palynology (1)
phycology
cell biology
developmental biology
ecology (51)
ecotoxicology (2)
genetics (1)
marine biology (42)
microbiology (11)
bacteriology
virology
molecular biology (1)
morphology (biological)
mycology
parasitology
pathology
systematics and taxonomy
zoology (3)
invertebrate zoology
entomology
vertebrate zoology
herpetology
ichthyology
mammalogy
ornithology
wildlife biology (3)
ethology
planetary sciences (2)
social sciences (1)
archeology
topics (5176)
agriculture
aquaculture
biological and physical processes (2169)
atmospheric and climatic processes (357)
atmospheric circulation
atmospheric deposition (chemical & particulate)
acid deposition
climate change (302)
desertification
droughts
ocean-atmosphere interaction (4)
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (3)
precipitation (atmospheric) (6)
storms (332)
blizzards
hurricanes (38)
ice storms
tornadoes
dust storms
evaporation
wind (261)
greenhouse effect
ecological processes (153)
algal blooms
bioaccumulation
biogeochemical cycling (12)
carbon cycling (4)
nutrient cycling
food web
biological productivity
contaminant transport (15)
dispersal (organisms)
ecological competition
ecosystem functions (93)
wetland functions (90)
eutrophication (2)
extinction and extirpation
habitat alteration and disturbance (24)
fire damage (4)
migration (organisms)
pollination
succession (biological)
transpiration
carbon flux (1)
ecosystem resilience (2)
fires (13)
geochemical processes (56)
biodegradation
ore formation
oxidation and reduction
reaction transport
sorption
carbon sequestration (1)
ocean acidification (55)
thermal maturation
geologic processes (719)
diagenesis
earthquakes (11)
earthquake occurrences
induced seismicity
ground failure
liquefaction
erosion (410)
sinkhole formation
glaciation
heat flow (earth) (4)
hydrothermal processes
isostasy
subsidence (1)
metamorphism (geological)
alteration
sediment transport (201)
sedimentation (31)
tectonic processes
neotectonic processes
volcanic activity (7)
volcanic gas emission
earth tides
deformation (geologic) (55)
folding (geologic) (25)
fracture (geologic) (30)
faulting (geologic) (30)
soil formation
magnetic storms
slope processes (16)
landslides (16)
lahars
uplift
fluid migration
ocean processes (387)
ocean circulation (6)
ocean currents (20)
ocean waves (116)
tsunamis (27)
tides (oceanic) (97)
physiological processes (1)
organism growth and development
metamorphosis
anatomical deformities
bioluminescence
osmosis
photosynthesis
bioenergetics
hydrologic processes (371)
floods (335)
storm surge (44)
groundwater flow (13)
streamflow (33)
stream discharge (5)
turbidity (21)
water circulation (8)
water cycle
percolation
runoff
saltwater intrusion
scour
groundwater and surface-water interaction (1)
evolution
impact cratering
coastal processes (1380)
longshore currents
tidal currents (2)
barrier island migration (62)
coastal emergence
coastal submergence
shoreline accretion (301)
estuarine processes (59)
estuarine currents (2)
estuarine mixing (2)
culture and demographics (2)
administrative and political boundaries (1)
protected areas
business and economics
recycling
resource supply and demand
materials flow (commodities)
cadastral and legal land descriptions
laws and regulations
transportation
geographic names (1)
population (human)
earth characteristics (3474)
atmospheric properties (3)
air temperature (3)
atmospheric composition
greenhouse gases
ozone layer
earth structure (6)
core (earth)
inner core (earth)
outer core (earth)
crust (earth) (6)
lithosphere (6)
continental lithosphere
oceanic lithosphere (6)
mantle (earth)
asthenosphere
geologic history
earth history
geologic structure (87)
foliation (geologic)
lineation (geologic)
structure contours
gravitational field (earth)
isostatic anomaly
free-air anomaly
bouguer anomaly
gravity gradient
land surface characteristics (22)
karst (5)
magnetic field (earth) (4)
ocean characteristics (2148)
ocean salinity (41)
ocean temperature (52)
sea surface temperature (11)
sea-floor characteristics (1588)
sea-floor acoustic reflectivity (635)
sea-level change (488)
rocks and deposits (210)
fossils (8)
ichnofossils
igneous rocks
volcanic rocks
plutonic rocks
metamorphic rocks
sedimentary rocks (3)
bedforms
unconsolidated deposits (177)
clay deposits (20)
gravel deposits (24)
sand deposits (45)
mine waste
soil horizons
solid industrial waste material
slag
coal ash
permafrost (8)
petroleum (18)
mineral deposits
snow and ice cover (1)
sea ice concentration (1)
stratigraphic sections (74)
bedrock geologic units (1)
geologic contacts (12)
unconformities (8)
surficial geologic units (1)
stratigraphic thickness (60)
topography (1424)
bathymetry (996)
earth material properties (49)
permeability (4)
porosity (6)
radioactivity (2)
resistivity (3)
bulk density (20)
magnetism (2)
remanent magnetism
magnetic susceptibility (2)
soil moisture (3)
soil temperature (8)
acid neutralizing potential
electromagnetic reflectance and emissivity
lakebed characteristics (72)
lakebed acoustic reflectivity (27)
effects of climate change (182)
hazards (340)
health and disease (12)
disease vectors
environmental health (human) (3)
human environmental safety
zoonotic diseases
wildlife disease
avian influenza
chronic wasting disease
white-nose syndrome
human impacts (12)
land use change (2)
habitat fragmentation
mining hazards
overfishing
overgrazing
waste treatment and disposal
deforestation
dredging
abandoned mines and quarries
information system design and development (115)
geographic information systems (115)
metadata development
instrument design and development
land use and land cover (56)
map coordinate systems (3)
contamination and pollution (28)
pesticide and herbicide contamination
toxic radionuclide contamination
toxic trace element contamination (4)
mercury contamination
nonpoint-source pollution
pharmaceutical contamination (1)
industrial pollution (18)
mine drainage
produced water
microplastic contamination
PFAS
natural resource exploration (1)
natural resource extraction (1)
mining and quarrying
well drilling
placer deposit mining
enhanced oil recovery
hydraulic fracturing
natural resources (77)
fishery resources (5)
commercial fishery resources
inland fishery resources (5)
marine fishery resources
whaling
recreational fishery resources
subsistence fishery resources
forest resources
mineral resources (29)
metallic mineral resources (11)
nonmetallic mineral resources (15)
building stone resources
gem resources
critical minerals
energy resources (11)
coal resources
geothermal resources
natural gas resources (11)
coalbed methane resources
gas hydrate resources (11)
oil resources
oil sand resources
oil shale resources
wind energy
soil resources (2)
biological soil crusts
water resources (35)
groundwater (18)
groundwater level (6)
unsaturated zone
surface water (non-marine) (19)
river systems (13)
river reaches (13)
surface-water level (6)
organism groupings (non-taxonomic) (91)
biota (1)
consumers (organisms)
carnivores
herbivores
omnivores
decomposers
endangered species
game species
keystone species
macroinvertebrates
migratory species (3)
native species
endemic species
nekton
nonindigenous species (5)
invasive species (5)
plankton (3)
phytoplankton
pollinators
producers (organisms)
shellfish
vegetation (51)
periphyton
weeds
aquatic vegetation (8)
wildlife
benthos (28)
microbes
parasites
nuisance species
genetically engineered organisms
organisms (146)
algae (12)
calcareous nannoplankton
diatoms (6)
dinoflagellates
animals (107)
invertebrates (103)
arthropods (1)
arachnids
crustaceans
ostracodes
horseshoe crabs
insects
butterflies and moths
bees and wasps
trilobites
bryozoans and brachiopods
coelenterates (92)
conodonts
echinoderms (1)
mollusks (5)
sponges
worms
flatworms
roundworms
segmented worms
tunicates
vertebrates (5)
amphibians
birds (3)
fish (1)
mammals
bears
bats
walruses
reptiles
dinosaurs
archaea (1)
bacteria (5)
fungi
lichens
plants (organisms) (1)
nonvascular plants
liverworts and hornworts
mosses
vascular plants (1)
ferns and fern allies
flowering plants
gymnosperms
protists (31)
viruses (1)
planetary bodies
meteorites
population and community ecology (446)
animal behavior
biodiversity (9)
ecosystem diversity
environmental DNA
genetic diversity (4)
genotype (1)
species diversity (4)
biogeography (3)
community ecology
ecosystems (409)
aquatic ecosystems (210)
benthic ecosystems (13)
estuarine ecosystems (31)
freshwater ecosystems (3)
marine ecosystems (166)
reef ecosystems (159)
terrestrial ecosystems (166)
coastal ecosystems (166)
desert ecosystems
forest ecosystems
grassland ecosystems
shrubland ecosystems
tundra ecosystems
island ecosystems
wetland ecosystems (118)
habitats (55)
population dynamics (1)
symbiosis
phenology
scientific careers
water properties (117)
nutrient content (water) (2)
oxygen content (water) (11)
salinity (39)
suspended material (water) (36)
water hardness
water pH (3)
water temperature (37)
dissolved gases (1)
dissolved metals
dissolved organic compounds (4)
sound velocity (27)
water column reflectivity
water quality (94)
groundwater quality (1)
marine water quality (80)
surface water quality (1)
water supply and demand
wastewater discharge
water budget
water use
domestic well water use
drinking water use
industrial water use
irrigation
mining water use
power generation water use
public supply water use
aquaculture water use
recreation
field monitoring stations (92)
elements (40)
chemical element groups (8)
actinide series elements
alkali metal elements
alkaline earth elements
halogen elements
lanthanide series elements
metal elements (2)
noble gas elements
nonmetal elements
rare earth elements (8)
platinum-group elements
chemical elements (32)
actinium
aluminum (3)
americium
antimony (1)
argon
arsenic (1)
astatine
barium (3)
berkelium
beryllium (1)
bismuth (1)
bohrium
boron (1)
bromine
cadmium (3)
calcium (3)
californium
carbon (25)
cerium (1)
cesium (1)
chlorine (1)
chromium (3)
cobalt (1)
copper (3)
curium
darmstadtium
dubnium
dysprosium (1)
einsteinium
erbium (1)
europium (1)
fermium
fluorine (1)
francium
gadolinium (1)
gallium (1)
germanium
gold
hafnium (1)
hassium
helium
holmium (1)
hydrogen
indium
iodine
iron (3)
iridium
krypton
lanthanum (1)
lawrencium
lead (4)
lithium
lutetium (1)
magnesium (1)
manganese (3)
meitnerium
mendelevium
mercury (4)
molybdenum (1)
neodymium (1)
neon
neptunium
nickel (3)
niobium
nitrogen (6)
nobelium
osmium
oxygen
palladium (1)
phosphorus (1)
platinum (1)
plutonium
polonium
potassium (2)
praseodymium (1)
promethium
protactinium
radium (2)
radon (3)
rhenium
rhodium (1)
rubidium
ruthenium
rutherfordium
samarium (1)
scandium (1)
seaborgium
selenium (1)
silicon (1)
silver (3)
sodium (1)
strontium (1)
sulfur (1)
tantalum
technetium
tellurium (1)
terbium (1)
thallium (1)
thorium (2)
thulium (1)
tin (1)
titanium (3)
tungsten (1)
ununnilium
ununnubium
ununnunium
uranium (1)
vanadium (3)
xenon
ytterbium (1)
yttrium (1)
zinc (3)
zirconium (3)
time periods (37)
geologic time periods (37)
Phanerozoic (37)
Cenozoic (37)
Quaternary (37)
Holocene (35)
Pleistocene (18)
Tertiary (2)
Neogene
Miocene
Pliocene
Paleogene
Eocene
Oligocene
Paleocene
Mesozoic
Cretaceous
Jurassic
Triassic
Paleozoic
Cambrian
Devonian
Mississippian
Ordovician
Pennsylvanian
Permian
Silurian
Precambrian
Archaean
Hadean
Proterozoic
Neoproterozoic
Ediacaran
Mesoproterozoic
Paleoproterozoic
seasons
autumn
spring (season)
summer
winter
institutional structures and activities (4)
facilities (3)
field offices
laboratories
libraries and archives (3)
sample repositories (3)
national centers
organizational structure
science centers
science discipline offices
regional offices
support offices
mission directorates
employment and volunteer opportunities
science programs
partnerships
interagency programs
interdisciplinary programs
international programs
external research support
citizen science programs
user services (1)
standards development
customer support and user feedback
educational services
college resources
internship programs
lifelong learning resources
K-12 resources
information services (1)
data services (1)
application programming interfaces
reference services
map interfaces
web map services
sales and distribution services
search services
news services
publishing
media relations
community relations