CMECS geoform, substrate, and biotopes offshore of Seattle, Washington

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
CMECS geoform, substrate, and biotopes offshore of Seattle, Washington
Abstract:
This part of USGS Data Series 935 (Cochrane, 2014) presents substrate, geomorphic, and biotope data in the Offshore of Seattle, California, map area, a part of the Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series. Given the variable bathymetric resolution, the complex geologic history of the region, and the lack of acoustic backscatter data, automated and semi-automated classification schemes of classifying seafloor substrate and geoform were deemed to have very low accuracy. Instead, classification of these properties was performed manually following the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS; Madden and others, 2009) using observations from underwater video footage. The best overall predictors of biotic assemblage were used to generate the CMECS biotopes. However, the nature of the biological data gathered makes it difficult to define clear biotopes. It was difficult to see or identify many organisms in the underwater video, and with an average of only 3-4 taxa identified per sampling unit, it is hard to characterize biotic assemblages. Some biological clusters of taxa were identified statistically for multiple map areas, and within each area, some of these groupings were found at consistent depths and/or with predictable substrates. The maps are not fine-grained enough to capture the physical variation seen within one-minute video units. Depth zones in the biotope map are based on Dethier (1992).
Supplemental_Information:
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Although this Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata file is intended to document the data set in nonproprietary form, as well as in Esri format, this metadata file may include some Esri-specific terminology.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Hodson, Timothy O., Cochrane, Guy R., and Dethier, Megan N., 20220202, CMECS geoform, substrate, and biotopes offshore of Seattle, Washington: data release DOI:10.5066/P9GVRZ3M, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Cochrane, Guy R., 2022, Bathymetry and topography, video observation, and derived benthic habitat data offshore of Seattle, Washington: data release DOI:10.5066/P9GVRZ3M, U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.714158
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -122.311809
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.834982
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.563368
  3. What does it look like?
    CMECS_OffshoreSeattle.jpg (JPEG)
    Shaded-relief map of Offshore of Seattle map area showing seafloor classified into CMECS substrate classes
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • GT-polygon composed of chains (2525)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      The map projection used is NAD 1983 UTM Zone 10N.
      Projection parameters:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -123.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000000002220024164500956
      Planar coordinates are specified in meter
      The horizontal datum used is D North American 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Polygon
    Polygons representing geologic / geomorphic map units (Source: This report)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    feature type (Source: Esri) polygon type vector object
    geoform
    CMECS Level 1 and 2 geoform structure (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    turbidite channela channel on a slope that is formed by turbidite flows repeatedly cutting and depositing sediment
    tidal furrowchannel formed by erosion of tidal currents at high tide
    tidal flatlevel sedimented area where there is a supply of fine-grained sediment and tides dominate over other hydrodynamic forces
    tidal channelchannel formed by erosion from tidal currents
    slope gullysmall, discontinuous submarine valley, usually formed by slumping along a fault scarp or the slope of a basin, canyon, or valley
    scour depressiona sedimented area deepened and winnowed by the action of bottom currents
    rock outcropan exposure of bedrock on the seafloor
    relic wave-cut platforma level area formed by wave erosion during a time of lower sea level
    relic tidal channela channel formed by tidal current erosion during a time of lower sea level
    prop scara sedimented area deepened and winnowed by the action of ship propellers
    basin floor fangravity flow sediment deposit in a basin from the surrounding higher terrain
    slopecontiguous sloping area between shelf and basin
    sediment wave fieldarea of coarse sediment worked into waves by bottom currents
    erosion scarprelatively straight, cliff-like face or slope of considerable linear extent, breaking the general continuity of the topography by separating surfaces lying at different levels, as along the margin of an erosional channel
    relic lagoonarcheo-shallow, highly enclosed submerged area
    pockmark fieldarea of sediment with seep-related circular depressions
    relic shore complexsubmerged archeo-shoreline
    depressiona low-lying area surrounded by higher ground often having no natural outlet.
    apronextensive blanket-like deposit of alluvial unconsolidated material derived from an identifiable source and deposited at the base of a high standing area
    morainemound, ridge, or other distinct accumulation of unsorted, unstratified glacial drift, predominantly till, deposited chiefly by direct action of glacier ice
    dredged channelanthropogenic dredging for navigation
    drumlinmound or ridge formed beneath flowing glacier
    basinlow-relief area that lies below the surrounding bottom/terrain elevation
    sillrise at the mouth of a fjord caused by reduced erosion and added to by the glacier's terminal moraine
    breakwater/jettyanthropogenic structure to protect coastal feature from wave erosion
    marinaanthropogenic structure for docking boats and ships
    shoreintersection of a specified plane of water with the beach
    sediment wave fieldarea of wavelike bedforms in sediment, ranging from centimeters to meters in wavelength and height, or superimposed on larger bedforms formed by the action of tides, currents, or waves
    landEarth surface above sea level datum
    relic tidal flatsubmerged archeo-tidal flat
    dredge depositfan or mound deposit of sediment from dredging
    canalanthropogenic channel with levees or cement banks
    pieranthropogenic near sea-level structure for access to the water
    submarine slide depositloose mass of angular rock fragments created by mass-movement downslope of soil and rock material en masse
    sbstr_clas
    Substrate Class (Madden and others, 2009), major order substrate grain size class (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    unconsolidated mineral substrategeologic substrates with less than 50 percent cover of rock substrate; uses Folk (1954) terminology to describe any mix of loose mineral substrate occurring at any range of sizes, from boulders to clay
    rock substrateigneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock with particle sizes greater than or equal to 4.0 meters in any dimension and covering greater than or equal to 50 percent of the geologic substrate surface
    sbstr_scls
    Substrate Subclass (Madden and others, 2009), narrower grain size classes within the Substrate Class blank values indicate insufficient information to identify a Subclass (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    coarse unconsolidated substratesubstrate surface layer containing any amount of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2 mm), from a single grannule to 100 percent boulders.
    fine unconsolidated substratesubstrate surface layer containing no trace of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2mm).
    bedrocksubstrate with largely continuous formations of bedrock covering 50 percent or more of the surface
    megaclastsubstrate where individual rocks with particle sizes greater than or equal to 4.0 meters in any dimension cover greater than or equal to 50 percent of the surface
    substr_grp
    Substrate Group (Madden and others, 2009), narrower grain size classes within the Substrate Subclass; blank values indicate insufficient information to identify a Group (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    gravelsubstrate surface layer contains up to 5 percent gravel
    slightly gravellysubstrate surface layer contains greater than or equal to 80 percent gravel
    sandsubstrate surface layer contains no trace of gravel and is composed of greater than or equal to 90 percent sand
    gravel mixsubstrate surface layer contains 30 percent to less than 80 percent gravel
    gravellysubstrate surface layer contains 5 percent to less than 30 percent gravel
    sandy mudsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 10 percent to less than 50 percent sand, with the remainder composed of mud
    mudsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 90 percent or more mud
    muddy sandsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 50 percent to less than 90 percent sand, with the remainder composed of mud
    substr_sgr
    Substrate Subgroup (Madden and others, 2009) narrower grain size classes than the Substrate Group, blank values indicate insufficient information to determine a Subgroup (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    cobblecobbles constitute the median gravel size
    gravelly sandsubstrate is 5 percent to less than 30 percent gravel, with sand composing 90 percent or more of the remaining sand-mud mix
    sandy gravelsubstrate is 5 percent to less than 30 percent sand, with gravel composing 90 percent or more of the remaining substrate
    tect_setti
    tectonic setting of the polygon (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    Convergent Active Continental Marginarea is located on an active continental margin
    physgrphc_
    physiographic setting of the area; blank means that no physiographic area was assigned (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    fjorda long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley
    geoform_or
    Geoform Origin (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    geologicformed by abiotic processes
    anthropogenicbuilt by or created by human activity
    sbstr_orig
    Substrate Origin (Madden and others 2009); blank values indicate insufficient information to determine a value (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    geologic substratedominant source of the substrate is either geologic or biogenic (but no longer living)
    anthropogenic substratedominant source of the substrate is man-made
    substrate
    Substrate Subgroup (Madden and others, 2009) narrower grain size classes than the Substrate Group; blank values indicate insufficient information to determine a Subgroup (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    cobblecobbles constitute the median gravel size
    gravelly sandsubstrate is 5 percent to less than 30 percent gravel, with sand composing 90 percent or more of the remaining sand-mud mix
    sandy gravelsubstrate is 5 percent to less than 30 percent sand, with gravel composing 90 percent or more of the remaining substrate
    coarse unconsolidated substratesubstrate surface layer containing any amount of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2 mm), from a single grannule to 100 percent boulders.
    fine unconsolidated substratesubstrate surface layer containing no trace of gravel (particles greater than or equal to 2mm).
    bedrocksubstrate with largely continuous formations of bedrock covering 50 percent or more of the surface
    megaclastsubstrate where individual rocks with particle sizes greater than or equal to 4.0 meters in any dimension cover greater than or equal to 50 percent of the surface
    gravelsubstrate surface layer contains up to 5 percent gravel
    slightly gravellysubstrate surface layer contains greater than or equal to 80 percent gravel
    sandsubstrate surface layer contains no trace of gravel and is composed of greater than or equal to 90 percent sand
    gravel mixsubstrate surface layer contains 30 percent to less than 80 percent gravel
    gravellysubstrate surface layer contains 5 percent to less than 30 percent gravel
    sandy mudsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 10 percent to less than 50 percent sand, with the remainder composed of mud
    mudsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 90 percent or more mud
    muddy sandsubstrate surface layer shows no trace of gravel and contains 50 percent to less than 90 percent sand, with the remainder composed of mud
    unconsolidated mineral substrategeologic substrates with less than 50 percent cover of rock substrate; uses Folk (1954) terminology to describe any mix of loose mineral substrate occurring at any range of sizes, from boulders to clay
    nainsufficient information to determine a substrate type
    depthzone
    Water depth classes from Dethier (1992) (Source: CMECS)
    ValueDefinition
    1water depths from 0 to less than 15 meters
    2water depths from 15 to less than 25 meters
    3water depths from 25 to less than 50 meters
    4water depths from 50 to less than 150 meters
    5water depths 150 meters or deeper
    group_a
    biotic group characterized by Asteroidea, Hologhuroi, Pleuronect on deep (50-149 meters depth) sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_b
    Sebastes on deep (50-149 meters) bedrock (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_c
    biotic group characterized by Balanus, encrusting organisms, tubeworms and Pisaster on moderately deep to deep (25-149 meters) coarse sediment (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_d
    biotic group characterized by Hydroida, encrusting organisms, Pectinidae, Actiniaria, Pycnopodia on moderately shallow to moderately deep (15-50 meters depth) coarse sediment (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_e
    biotic group characterized by Cottidae, Cancer, Solaster on sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_f
    biotic group characterized by Chlorophyc, bony fish, Pycnopodia on sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_g
    Biotic group characterized by Hydroida, encrusting organisms, Asteriidae, Ptilosarcus and tubeworms on deep (50-149 meters depth) gravel and cobble (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_h
    Biotic group characterized by Hydroida, tubeworms, and Metridium on moderately deep to deep (25-149 meters depth) sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_i
    biotic group characterized by Hydroida, tubeworms, Cerianthid, Bryozoa on moderately deep to deep (25-149 meters depth) sand and bedrock (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_j
    biotic group characterized by Hydroida on moderately deep to deep (25-149 meters depth) cobbley sand. (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_k
    biotic group characterized by Pisaster, Rhodophyco, encrusting organisms, and Metridium on moderately shallow to deep (15-149 meters depth) sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_l
    biotic group characterized by Pycnopodia, Phaeophyco, and Metridium on moderately shallow to moderately deep sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_m
    biotic group characterized by Phaeophyco and Laminarial on shallow to moderately deep (0-50 meters depth) sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    group_n
    biotic group characterized by Phaeophyco, Hydroida, Bivalvia, Zoarcidae, and Solaster on deep (50-149 meters depth) sand (Source: M.N. Dethier)
    ValueDefinition
    0biotic group is absent from area
    1biotic group is present in area
    biotope
    Combination of depth class and substrate class. (Source: G.R. Cochrane)
    ValueDefinition
    42coarse unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 4
    32coarse unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 3
    12coarse unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 1
    22coarse unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 2
    31fine unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 3
    21fine unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 2
    11fine unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 1
    41fine unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 4
    0undetermined substrate in not in a depth zone
    51fine unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 5
    52coarse unconsolidated sediment in depth zone 5
    13rock substrate in depth zone 1
    23rock substrate in depth zone 2
    33rock substrate in depth zone 3
    43rock substrate in depth zone 4
    53rock substrate in depth zone 5
    Shape_Area
    polygon area in square meters (Source: ESRI)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.006119
    Maximum:91573313.9886
    Units:square meters
    Resolution:0.01
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    shapefile consisting of 2,525 polygons classified into 34 CMECS geoforms
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2012, Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard, 343 p., https://coast.noaa.gov/data/digitalcoast/pdf/cmecs.pdf

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Timothy O. Hodson
    • Guy R. Cochrane
    • Megan N. Dethier
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To expand geologic mapping to the seafloor within Washington's State Waters, to update coastal habitat mapping, and to contribute to a uniform regional habitat database. Additionally, to provide a habitat map for the public and ecoscience community to aid in land-use and land-management decisions both onshore and offshore.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2012 (process 1 of 3)
    Map unit Geoform polygons were digitized over underlying 2-meter base layers developed from multibeam bathymetry data, also available in this data release. The specificity of our CMECS geoform interpretations reflects the resolution of the underlying NOS bathymetry. Where there was sufficient resolution to attribute a particular genetic process to a geoform, we ascribed an appropriately specific geoform type. Where bathymetric resolution was low and the genetic interpretation equivocal, our geoform classifications were more generic. Seafloor geoforms were classified based on their physical attributes as observed in the NOS bathymetric surveys and USGS seismic reflection profiles (Triezenberg and others, 2016) in combination with knowledge of common glacial and estuarine processes and interpretations from the regional geologic literature.
    Date: 2012 (process 2 of 3)
    Areas near USGS seafloor video transects were classified with more specificity, down to Substrate Group or Substrate Subgroup, depending on proximity to ground-truthed transects and the local heterogeneity of the seafloor. Our classification of substrates in areas outside the primary study region was based primarily upon geomorphological interpretations drawn from historical NOS surveys and historical NOS seabed descriptions. Consequently, these interpretations are less specific; substrate classifications in these areas are typically limited to the Substrate Class or Substrate Subclass. The CMECS Substrate Component values are described in Madden and others (2009).
    Date: 2012 (process 3 of 3)
    Depth zones in the biotope map are based on Dethier (1992). The biotope polygons were derived by merging depth zone polygons with the CMECS geoform-substrate polygons and creating an integer code to represent the substrate class and depth zone of each polygon.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Folk, R.L., 1954, The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary Rock Nomenclature.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Folk, R.L., The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary Rock Nomenclature: J. Geol., v. 62, p. 344-359.
    Cochrane, Guy R., 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Cochrane, G.R., compiler, 2014, Southern Salish Sea Habitat Map Series Data Catalog: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 935
    Dethier, Megan N., 1992, Classifying marine and estuarine natural communities: An alternative to the Cowardin system.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Dethier, M.N., 1992, Classifying marine and estuarine natural communities: An alternative to the Cowardin system: Natural Areas Journal, v. 12, p. 90-100.
    Madden, C.J., Goodin, K., Allee, R.J., Cicchetti, G., Moses, C., Finkbeiner, M., and Bamford, D., 2009, Coastal and marine ecological classification standard (Version 3).

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Madden, C.J., Goodin, K., Allee, R.J., Cicchetti, G., Moses, C., Finkbeiner, M., and Bamford, D., 2009, Coastal and marine ecological classification standard (Version 3): National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Natureserve, 126 p.
    Triezenberg, P. J., Hart, P. E., and Childs, J. R., 2016, National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): A USGS data website of marine seismic reflection data within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Triezenberg, P. J., Hart, P. E., and Childs, J. R., 2016, National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): A USGS data website of marine seismic reflection data within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): U.S. Geological Survey Data Release
    Reid, J.A., Jenkins, C.J., Zimmermann, M., Williams, S. Jeffress, and Field, M.E., 2006, usSEABED: Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, Washington) Offshore Surficial-Sediment Data Release, version 1.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Reid, J.A., Reid, J.M., Jenkins, C.J., Zimmermann, M., Williams, S.J., and Field, M.E., 2006, usSEABED: Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, Washington) offshore surficial-sediment data release: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 182, version 1.0

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Polygons were hand delineated; the accuracy of substrate and biota observations cannot be quantified. Polygons were visually checked for overshoots, undershoots, duplicate features, polygon closure, and other errors by the lead author and by the GIS technician who created the digital database.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Polygons were primarily mapped by interpretation of 2-meter-resolution hillshaded bathymetry data interpreted from bathymetric lidar and sonar surveys, from visual observations of underwater sea floor video, and from sediment samples. Sea floor video and sediment sample information positions are highly variable, on the order of 10 meters. Horizontal position given is ship position. Towed camera can be on the order of 10 meters distance from the ship during deployment. Map Unit contact locations were interpreted typically at a scale of 1:2,000 using the above base data. Bathymetric sonar and LiDAR data have a horizontal accuracy greater than the resolution of the base data. Map unit contacts were digitized by heads-up screen digitization of line data on 2-meter-resolution DEMs described above. Horizontal accuracy is estimated to be between 2 and 5 meters depending on how clearly contacts can be resolved. Most digitized positions on the map are estimated to have better than 5 m horizontal accuracy.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Data are complete, no offshore features that could be accurately identified and represented at the compilation scale of 1:30,000 were eliminated or generalized. The smallest area represented is approximately 200 square meters. All geospatial database elements are attributed.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No checks for consistency were performed on this data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
USGS-authored or produced data and information are in the public domain from the U.S. Government and are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize and acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset and in products derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - CMGDS
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-427-4747 (voice)
    pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? These data are available in shapefile format (CMECS_OffshoreSeattle.shp and associated files) contained in a single zip file (CMECS_OffshoreSeattle.zip).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with GIS software.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 04-Feb-2022
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: PCMSC Science Data Coordinator
2885 Mission Street
Santa Cruz, CA

831-427-4747 (voice)
pcmsc_data@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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