Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Grain-size data

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Grain-size data
Abstract:
Sedimentologic and topographic data from Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were collected from Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in order to document changes to the barrier-island beaches, dunes, and coastal wetlands due to Hurricane Sandy and subsequent storm events. These data will provide a baseline dataset for use in future coastal change descriptive and predictive studies and assessments. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/sandy-wetland-assessment/), which aims to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. This metadata record describes data that were collected in April 2015, approximately two and a half years after Hurricane Sandy’s landfall on 29 October 2012. During the field campaign, washover deposits were photographed, and described. In addition, sediment samples, cores, and surface elevations were collected. Data collected during this study including sample locations and elevations, core photographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, descriptive core logs, sediment grain-size data, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata are provided in the associated USGS Data Release, available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D7S.
Supplemental_Information:
Samples used for grain-size analysis were placed into a 1000 ml beaker filled with 200-500 ml of deionized water. Organics were removed by adding 5-10 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide and allowing the sample to oxidize overnight. Following the oxidation the samples were heated to drive off excess hydrogen peroxide. Samples were than washed twice via centrifugation in order to remove all soluble chemicals and excess organic material. Following washing, the samples were wet sieved to segregate them into three broad size fractions: Course/Gravel (>2mm); Intermediate/Sand (2.00 mm - 0.063mm); and Mud (silt and clay) composed of the material < 0.063mm. Both sand and gravel fractions were dried in an 80°C oven and weighed. 5 mLof calgon (sodium hexametaphosphate) solution was added to the mud fraction cylinder and distilled water was added to total the volume to 1L. The mud + calgon solution sat overnight to ensure removal of the mud particles’ negative charges. Subsequently, a 20 mL aliquot was taken from the 1 L mud fraction to determine the weight of the mud. The gravel fraction was separated with sieves and binned at 1/4phi intervals. The sand and mud fractions were analyzed with a Beckman Coulter LS 13-320 laser diffraction particle size analyzer at 1/4 phi size intervals. The particle size data was then combined and processed with the PCMSC software called pcSDSZ, which determines the particle size distribution according to graphical statistics using the formulas of Folk and Ward (1957) Folk, (1966,1974), Inman (1952), and Trask (1930 and 1932), as well as Moment Measures (Collias and others 1963). The raw grain size data were also run through the program GRADISTAT (Blott and Pye, 2001) in order to calculate geometric (in metric units) mean, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis of each sample using the Folk and Ward (1957) method. GRADISTAT also calculates the fraction of sediment from each sample by size category (for example, clay, coarse silt, fine sand) based on a modified Wentworth (1922) size scale.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Bishop, James M., Richmond, Bruce M., Zaremba, Nicholas J., Lunghino, Brent D., and Kane, Haunani H., 2016, Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Grain-size data:.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Bishop, James M., Richmond, Bruce M., Zaremba, Nicholas J., Lunghino, Brent D., and Kane, Haunani H., 2016, Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1090, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.28985
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.26328
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.53089
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.50911
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 07-Apr-2015
    Ending_Date: 14-Apr-2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    BH15_Core_GrainSize_statistics.csv
    GRADISTAT summary of grain-size data from all sediment cores collected in April 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA), provided as a comma separated values (.csv) file. (Source: USGS)
    BH15_Core_GrainSize_Raw_Data.csv
    pcSDSZ raw grain-size data from all sediment cores collected in April 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA), provided as a comma separated values (.csv) file. (Source: USGS)
    BH15_SedimentSource_GrainSize_Statistics.csv
    GRADISTAT summary of grain-size data from all sediment source grab samples collected in April 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA), provided as a comma separated values (.csv) file. (Source: USGS)
    BH15_SedimentSource_GrainSize_Raw_Data.csv
    pcSDSZ rRaw grain-size data from all sediment cores collected in April 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA), provided as a comma separated values (.csv) file. (Source: USGS)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The detailed attribute descriptions for the statistics summary workbooks are provided in the included data dictionary (Grain_Size_Data-Dictionary.pdf). These metadata are not complete without this file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Data dictionary for grain-size data tables, in: Bishop, J.M, Richmond, B.M., Zaremba, N.J., Lunghino, B.D., and Kane, H.H., 2016, Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Grain-size, elevations, and graphic core logs, U.S. Geological Survey Data Release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D7S.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • James M. Bishop
    • Bruce M. Richmond
    • Nicholas J. Zaremba
    • Brent D. Lunghino
    • Haunani H. Kane
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    .S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

BH15_GrainSize_Data.zip includes a data dictionary, .csv files, and accompanying metadata summarizing the results of grain-size analyses for sediments from sediment cores collected April 7-14, 2015, from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey (USGS Field Activity Number (FAN) 2015-611-FA).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2015 (process 1 of 3)
    Grain-size analyses was conducted on 13 push cores and 11 sediment source grab samples. Push cores were collected using a 7.62 cm (3 inch) diameter push-core device along five transects that ran roughly parallel to the long axis of Hurricane Sandy washover fans. Cores were also collected from areas that were not overwashed by Hurricane Sandy. Upon extraction, cores were capped, sealed and the location and core ID were recorded. In general, push cores sampled shallow sediments located above the groundwater table (< 1 meter depth). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 2 of 3)
    In the Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (Santa Cruz, CA) sediment core lab, push cores were split lengthwise, photographed, and described using standard sediment logging methods. Push cores were sub-sampled at 1 cm intervals for grain-size analysis. Sample frequencies varied from core-to-core based on observed lithologic changes. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 3 of 3)
    Samples used for grain-size analysis were placed into a 1000 ml beaker filled with 200-500 ml of deionized water. Organics were removed by adding 5-10 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide and allowing the sample to oxidize overnight. Following the oxidation the samples were heated to drive off excess hydrogen peroxide. Samples were than washed twice via centrifugation in order to remove all soluble chemicals and excess organic material. Following washing, the samples were wet sieved to segregate them into three broad size fractions: Course/Gravel (>2 mm); Intermediate/Sand (2.00 mm - 0.063 mm); and Mud (silt and clay) composed of the material < 0.063 mm. Both sand and gravel fractions were dried in an 80°C oven and weighed. 5 mL of calgon (sodium hexametaphosphate) solution was added to the mud fraction cylinder and distilled water was added to total the volume to 1 L. The mud + calgon solution sat overnight to ensure removal of the mud particles’ negative charges. Subsequently, a 20 mL aliquot was taken from the 1 L mud fraction to determine the weight of the mud. The gravel fraction was separated with sieves and binned at 1/4 phi intervals. The sand and mud fractions were analyzed with a Beckman Coulter LS 13-320 laser diffraction particle size analyzer at 1/4 phi size intervals. The grain-size data was then combined and processed with the PCMSC software called pcSDSZ, which determines the grain-size distribution according to graphical statistics using the formulas of Folk and Ward (1957) Folk, (1966,1974), Inman (1952), and Trask (1930 and 1932), as well as Moment Measures (Collias and others 1963). The raw grain-size data were also run through the program GRADISTAT (Blott and Pye, 2001) in order to calculate geometric (in metric units) mean, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis of each sample using the Folk and Ward (1957) method. GRADISTAT also calculates the fraction of sediment from each sample by size category (for example, clay, coarse silt, fine sand) based on a modified Wentworth (1922) size scale. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Bishop, J.M., Richmond, B.M., Zaremba, N.J., Lunghino, B.D., and Kane, H.K., 2016, Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report Open-File Report 2016–1090.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Publications listed in the process step are all cited in Open-File Report 2016-1090.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Grain size data presented were checked for precision by performing duplicate analysis on 10% of samples. Duplicate analysis variability was slight and found to be within the range of natural variability. Sample depths were measured to the nearest half-centimeter using a metric tape measure.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This grain-size dataset includes results for 11 sediment source grab samples and 75 samples from 13 push cores collected in April 2015 from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey (USGS FAN 2016-611-FA). Push cores were sub-sampled at 1 cm intervals for grain-size analysis. Sample frequencies varied from core-to-core based on observed lithologic changes.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The complete grain-size dataset including raw grain-size data from pcSDSZ, all GRADISTAT parameters, and results of duplicate analysis are included in the unedited output files located in the compressed file BH15_GrainSize_Data.zip. Duplicate sample analysis results are included in the grain-size data files and are identified by the word ‘duplicate’ following the sample name.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be acknowledged as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This zip archive includes comma separated values (.csv) files and accompanying metadata summarizing the results of grain-size analyses from sediment cores and sediment source grab samples collected in April 2015 from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA). in format Compressed (zip) archive Tabular digital data Size: 0.130
      Network links: https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7PK0D7S/data/BH15_GrainSize_Data.zip
    • Cost to order the data: None, if obtained online

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The workbooks included in this .zip file were created for use with Microsoft Excel 2010 and can be opened using Microsoft Excel 2007 or higher; these data may also be viewed with the Microsoft Excel viewer (http://office.microsoft.com/).

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 27-Mar-2018
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: James M. Bishop
Geologist
400 Natural Bridges Drive
Santa Cruz, CA
USA

808-351-2559 (voice)
jmbishop@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/BH15_GrainSize_Data-met.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.49 on Mon Sep 10 17:44:17 2018