Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Sample locations

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Sample locations
Abstract:
Sedimentologic and topographic data from Hurricane Sandy (HS) washover deposits were collected from Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in order to document changes to the barrier-island beaches, dunes, and coastal wetlands due to HS and subsequent storm events. These data will provide a baseline dataset for use in future coastal change descriptive and predictive studies and assessments. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/sandy-wetland-assessment/), which aims to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. This metadata record describes data that were collected in April 2015, approximately two and a half years after HS’s landfall on 29 October 2012. During the field campaign, washover deposits were photographed and described. In addition, sediment samples, cores, and surface elevations were collected. Data products provided in the associated USGS Data Release (available at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D7S) include, sample locations and elevations, core photographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, descriptive core logs, sediment grain-size data, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.
Supplemental_Information:
Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC), and students from the University of Hawaii conducted field work from April 7th – 14th, 2015, during which time 49 trenches were dug, documented, and photographed. In addition, 33 sediment cores, 12 sediment source grab samples, and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) elevations were collected. Trenches were dug such that the walls were roughly parallel to the long axis of the washover fan (parallel to the inferred overwash flow direction). Each trench was photographed and described with special attention paid to identifying the depth of the pre-Hurricane Sandy surfaces, where possible. At some locations, the pre-Hurricane Sandy surface, identified using pre-Sandy aerial imagery, was a brown, rooted, peat or soil that has been overlain by a light-colored sand. In these cases, identification of the pre-HS surface in the field was obvious. In other locations, a shallow water table resulted in collapse of the trench walls before reaching the pre-HS surface. Cores were collected using either a 7.62 cm (3 inch) diameter push-core device or a 5.2 cm diameter, 50 cm long Russian peat auger. In general, push cores sampled shallow sediment that occurred above the groundwater table while the Russian cores were able to sample sediment within ponds or below the water table. In total 13 push cores and 20 Russian cores were collected. At six of the sites, multiple Russian cores were collected, each penetrating to different depths. Push cores were capped and sealed upon extraction and the location and core ID were recorded. A north arrow was marked on the push cores in order to orient them for CT scanning and laboratory analysis. Russian cores were transferred to PVC tubes that had been split lengthwise, then wrapped in plastic and taped. Location and core IDs were recorded but due to the nature of Russian core extraction, orientation was uncertain and not recorded. Bulk sediment grab samples weighing between 5 and 30 grams were collected from potential sediment sources and analyzed for grain size.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Bishop, James M., Richmond, Bruce M., Zaremba, Nicholas J., Lunghino, Brent D., and Kane, Haunani H., 2016, Hurricane Sandy washover deposit data from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: Sample locations:.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Bishop, James M., Richmond, Bruce M., Zaremba, Nicholas J., Lunghino, Brent D., and Kane, Haunani H., 2016, Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016-1090, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.29045
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.26328
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.53089
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.50887
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 07-Apr-2015
    Ending_Date: 14-Apr-2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    Ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 18
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.001
      Planar coordinates are specified in Meters
      The horizontal datum used is D North American 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.001
      Altitude_Distance_Units: Meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    BH15_Core_locations.csv
    Comma separated values (.csv) file defining the site locations and selected metrics for push cores and Russian peat augers collected April 2015 from Long Beach Island, NJ (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA). (Source: USGS)
    BH15_Sed_source_sample_locations.csv
    Comma separated values (.csv) file defining the site locations and selected metrics for sediment source samples collected in April 2015 from Long Beach Island, New Jersey (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA). (Source: USGS)
    BH15_trench_locations.csv
    Comma separated values (.csv) file defining the site locations and selected metrics for trenches documented in April 2015 from Long Beach Island, New Jersey (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA). (Source: USGS)
    Core_ID
    Core identifier. For Russian peat auger cores (e.g. BH15_RCXX_XX_XXX) the number immediately following RC indicate the core number and the numbers at the end of the string indicate the depth interval the core was collected from. For example, BH15_RC01_30_80 indicates that Russian peat auger core RC01 was collected from 30 to 80 centimeters depth. (Source: USGS) Character string
    Sample_ID
    Sediment sample identifier (Source: USGS) Character string
    Transect
    Transect number where the core or trench was located. Not all cores were located on transects. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:5
    Trench
    The trench number on a particular transect where a core was collected. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:7
    NAD83_Lat
    Latitude of site location, in decimal degrees (NAD83) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:39.508871
    Maximum:39.530893
    Units:Decimal Degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    NAD83_Lon
    Longitude of site location, in decimal degrees (NAD83) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-74.290449
    Maximum:-74.263279
    Units:Decimal Degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    NAD83_X
    X-coordinate (easting) of site location, in meters (NAD83, UTM zone 18 N) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:560998.729
    Maximum:563315.242
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    NAD83_Y
    Y-coordinate (northing) of site location, in meters (NAD83, UTM zone 18 N) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4373490.438
    Maximum:4375915.688
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    NAD83_Ell
    Ellipsoid height of site location, in meters (NAD83) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-33.831
    Maximum:-31.819
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    NAVD88_G12A_m
    Elevation (orthometric height) of site location, in meters (NAD83, GEOID 12A) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.117
    Maximum:2.150
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    Elevation_uncertainty_cm
    Uncertainty (error) in elevation measurements (NAVD88G12A_m). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2.33
    Maximum:5
    Units:Centimeters
    Resolution:0.01
    LENGTH_cm
    Core length, in centimeters. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20
    Maximum:70
    Units:Centimeters
    Resolution:0.5
    D_MARSH_cm
    Depth to marsh surface, in centimeters; depth = 0 indicates core collected from extant marsh (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:80.5
    Units:Centimeters
    Resolution:0.01
    ELEV_MARSH_m
    Elevation of marsh surface, in meters (NAD83, GEOID 12A) (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.057
    Maximum:1.345
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    Depth_cm
    Depth of trench, in centimeters (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:15
    Maximum:83
    Units:Centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Top_depth_cm
    Depth of the top of a Push core or Russian peat auger core. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:150
    Units:Centimeters
    Resolution:1
    Top_elev_cm
    Elevation (NAVD88G12A_m) of the top of a Push core or Russian peat auger core. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-1.195
    Maximum:1.685
    Units:Meters
    Resolution:0.001
    COMMENT
    Additional site or core information (Source: USGS) Character string

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • James M. Bishop
    • Bruce M. Richmond
    • Nicholas J. Zaremba
    • Brent D. Lunghino
    • Haunani H. Kane
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

BH15_Core_locations.zip includes geographic locations, site elevations, descriptions, and selected metrics (core, trench, and sediment source) as comma separated values (.csv) files. Samples were collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey in April 2015 during USGS Field Activity Number (FAN) 2015-611-FA.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2015 (process 1 of 5)
    Sampling locations were chosen by analyzing pre- and post-storm aerial imagery and lidar data to identify areas of Long Beach Island that were overwashed by HS. HS washover deposits were documented along five transects that were oriented roughly parallel to the long axis of the washover fan (that is, parallel to the inferred overwash flow direction). Sediment cores were collected and trenches were dug periodically along each of the transects. In addition to the 5 washover transects, trenches were dug and sediment cores were collected from areas that did not contain washover deposits from HS in order to document and compare sedimentologic characteristics of non-HS deposits. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 2 of 5)
    Sample locations were recorded at the time of collections using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx handheld receivers. At most sampling locations, position and elevation data were also recorded using an Ashtech Proflex DGPS receiver and geodetic antenna. Field setup consisted of a rover receiver collecting GPS data at a frequency of 1 second. The receiver was placed within a backpack and connected to the antenna; data were recorded to a flash drive. The antenna was mounted on a metal pole with a spike on the bottom, the spike was pushed into the ground and, the height of the GPS antenna above the ground was measured and recorded whenever the system was setup. Each site was occupied from 5-45 minutes, the start and stop time of each occupation site were recorded. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 3 of 5)
    The GPS data collected during Field Activity 2015-611-FA were differentially corrected by post-processing using continuous operating reference station (CORS) NJGT, NJOC and NJCM located approximately 23, 50 and 65 km away from the study location. It was necessary for multiple CORS sites to be used during post processing as a result of some of the CORS not being in operation during portions of data collection. Data for the CORS used during processing of the GPS data were obtained from NOAA (http://geodesy.noaa.gov/cgi-cors/corsage_2.prl). The CORS location coordinates were imported into GrafNav, version 8.4 (NovAtel Waypoint Product Group), and the data from the rover GPS (the GPS unit used to collect data at each sample site) were post-processed to the concurrent CORS session. The position data were later exported from GrafNav, as a text (.txt) file. Vertical GPS accuracies ranged from 13 mm (25 km CORS station) to 30 mm (65 km CORS station) and horizontal GPS accuracies ranged from 5 mm (25km CORS station) to 10 mm (65 km CORS station). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 4 of 5)
    Using the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) transformation software packages HTDP (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/Htdp/Htdp.shtml), version 3.2.3 and VDatum, version 3.2 (http://vdatum.noaa.gov/), the sample locations that were previously exported from GrafNav were transformed from the GPS acquisition datum (WGS84) to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83), Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 18 north (18N) reference frame and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) orthometric elevation, using the NGS geoid model of 2012A (GEOID12A). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
    Date: 2015 (process 5 of 5)
    At the PCMSC sediment core lab, push cores were split lengthwise, parallel to the long axis of the washover fan from which they were collected, then photographed and described using standard sediment logging methods. Push cores were sub-sampled at 1 cm intervals for grain-size analysis. Sample frequencies varied from core-to-core based on observed lithologic changes. Russian cores were photographed and described after removing tape and plastic wrap from the core. Grain-size analysis was not performed on Russian cores. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The positional accuracy of the sample locations was determined by the accuracy of the raw position data recorded by the GPS antenna during data collection. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) coordinates were obtained using post-processing software packages (National Geodetic Survey On-Line Positioning User Service (OPUS) and Waypoint Product Group GrafNav, version 8.40).
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    All static GPS base station sessions were processed through OPUS, maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The OPUS base-station solutions were entered into a spreadsheet to compute a final, time-weighted positional coordinate (latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height) for each base station. The mean horizontal error of the sample locations was 0.007 m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    For this survey, the mean vertical error for was +/- 0.021 m.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset includes the locations of 33 sediment cores, 49 trench sites, and 11 sediment source grab samples collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey in April 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA).
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Position and elevation data at each sample site were recorded with an Ashtech DGPS receiver and geodetic antenna. DGPS data were recorded concurrently throughout the survey at multiple National Park Service benchmarks using a similar instrument combination. The final sample locations, including elevation, are the post-processed DGPS coordinates based on processing to the nearest base station; baseline distances for all sediment core sites were at most 65 km.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
The U.S. Geological Survey requests that it be acknowledged as the originator of this dataset in any future products or research derived from these data.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, California
    Attn: James M. Bishop
    Geologist
    400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    808-351-2559 (voice)
    jmbishop@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: This zip archive includes the geographic locations, site elevations, site descriptions, and core and trench metrics as comma separated values (.csv) files for sediment cores collected and trenches documented from Long Beach Island, NJ in April, 2015 (USGS FAN 2015-611-FA). in format Compressed (zip) archive Tabular digital data Size: 0.020
      Network links: https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/data-release/doi-F7PK0D7S/
    • Cost to order the data: None, if obtained online

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The sample location tables were created in Microsoft Excel 2010 and can be opened using Microsoft Excel 2007 or higher; these data may also be viewed using the free Microsoft Excel Viewer (http://office.microsoft.com/) or in widely available text editing software such as Microsoft Notepad.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 19-Mar-2019
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: James M. Bishop
Geologist
400 Natural Bridges Drive
Santa Cruz, CA
USA

808-351-2559 (voice)
jmbishop@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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