Time-series coral-cover data from Hawaii, Florida, Mo'orea, and the Virgin Islands

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Time-series coral-cover data from Hawaii, Florida, Mo'orea, and the Virgin Islands
Abstract:
Coral reefs around the world have degraded over the last half-century as evidenced by loss of live coral cover. This ubiquitous observation led to the establishment of long-term, ecological monitoring programs in several regions with sizable coral-reef resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis working group "Local-scale ecosystem resilience amid global-scale ocean change: the coral reef example," scientists gathered resultant data from four of these programs in the main Hawaiian Islands, the Florida Keys, Mo’orea in French Polynesia, and St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands to examine among-site, within-region spatial and temporal variation in coral cover. Data from the four focal regions represent spatial scales ranging from ~80 to 17,000 km2. The surveys chosen for the analysis were carried out at fixed sites between 1992 and 2015. Survey durations differed among focal regions and extended from 11 years at Mo’orea to 24 years at some of the sites in St. John. One hundred and twenty-three fixed sites (defined here as distinct surveys carried out within a defined reef habitat, depth range, or area of shoreline) were surveyed repeatedly (annually or every few years) in each focal region. Only sites with surveys extending over a decade or more and with at least 3 years of surveys were used so as to capture a variety of disturbance events (for example, El Niño events, major storms, etc.). Each focal region has experienced disturbances such as overfishing, disease pandemics, thermal stress, pollution, invasive species, predator outbreaks, and major storms. The data gathered for analysis are provided in this data release and are interpreted in Guest and others (2018).
Supplemental_Information:
Scientific research permits: The data included here were collected with permission from the respective government agencies responsible for marine resource management in each jurisdiction. See cross-referenced publications for permitting and methods details.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Guest, James R., Edmunds, Peter J., Gates, Ruth D., Kuffner, Ilsa B., Brown, Eric K., Rodgers, Ku'ulei S., Jokiel, Paul L., Ruzicka, Robert R., Colella, Michael A., Miller, Jeff, Atkinson, Andrea, Feeley, Michael W., and Rogers, Caroline S., 20180430, Time-series coral-cover data from Hawaii, Florida, Mo'orea, and the Virgin Islands: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release doi:10.5066/F78W3C7W, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Guest, James R., Edmunds, Peter J., Gates, Ruth D., Kuffner, Ilsa B., Andersson, Andreas J., Barnes, Brian B., Chollett, Iliana, Elahi, Robin, Courtney, Travis A., Gross, Kevin, Lenz, Elizabeth A., Mitarai, Satoshi, Mumby, Peter J., Nelson, Hannah R., Parker, Britt A., Putnam, Hollie M., and Toth, Lauren T., 20180618, A framework for identifying and characterising coral-reef "oases" against a backdrop of degradation: Journal of Applied Ecology, United Kingdom.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.78
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -64.6677
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.295
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -17.5883
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1992
    Ending_Date: 2015
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: N/A
      This is a Point data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Coral_cover_data.csv, Coral_cover_data.xlsx
    These files contain attribute information for coral-reef survey data collected at four focal locations: the main Hawaiian Islands, the Florida Keys, Mo'orea in French Polynesia, and St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Data include focal location name, sub-location name, site name, site latitude, site longitude, year data collected, taxonomic identity, and percent cover of live coral. To view the data in a tab-delimited format arranged by column, please use the Excel spreadsheet. (Source: USGS)
    Location
    A textual identifier of the four locations where data were collected: "Florida_Keys" = the Florida Keys islands in the state of Florida, United States of America; "French Polynesia" = the overseas collectivity of the French Republic; "Main_Hawaiian_Islands" = the main islands of the state of Hawaii, United States of America; "USVI" = the United States Territory of the Virgin Islands, United States of America. (Source: USGS) A textual description of the geographic location where data were collected.
    Sub_location
    A textual identifier of the region within each of the four locations where data were collected. St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and French Polynesia do not have more than one sub-location. (Source: USGS) A textual description of the geographic sub-location where data were collected.
    Site_name
    A textual identifier of the site assigned by the data collectors. "Site" is defined here as the geographic area where distinct surveys were carried out within a defined reef habitat, depth range, or area of shoreline. (Source: USGS) A textual description of the geographic site where data were collected.
    Data_source
    A textual identifier of the institutional monitoring program responsible for collecting the data. "CREMP_Florida" = Florida Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Project; "Mo'orea_LTER" = Mo'orea Long Term Ecological Research Network; "CRAMP_Hawaii" = Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program; "NPS_SFCN" = National Park Service South Florida Caribbean Network; "CSUN" = California State University Northridge. (Source: USGS) A textual description of the institutional program responsible for collecting the data.
    Latitude
    A numeric value of the angular distance of a place north (positive) or south (negative) of the earth's equator expressed in decimal degrees. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-17.5883
    Maximum:25.2950
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Longitude
    A numeric value of the angular distance of a place east (positive) or west (negative) of the earth's prime meridian expressed in decimal degrees. (Source: TBD)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-159.7800
    Maximum:-64.6677
    Units:Decimal degrees
    Year
    A numerical value representing the calendar year in which the data were collected. (Source: TBD)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1992
    Maximum:2015
    Units:N/a
    Taxon
    A textual identifier of the lowest taxonomic name given to the organism(s) identified in the sample (for example, genus and species, genus, family, order) as described in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS, http://www.marinespecies.org) or species-complex category containing only accepted species names as described in the WoRMS. (Source: World Register of Marine Species) A textual identifier of the genus and species, genus, family, order as described in the WoRMS, or a species-complex category identified as follows: The Agaricia_agaricites_complex includes A. agaricites and A. humilis. The Madracis_decactis_complex includes M. decactis, M. pharensis, and M. senaria. The Mycetophyllia_lamarckiana_complex includes M. lamarckiana and M. danaana. The Orbicella_annularis_complex includes O. faveolata and O. franksi, and O. annularis. The Porites_porites_complex includes P. porites, P. furcata, and P. divaricate. The Porites_spp_Massive taxon category includes P. lobata, P. lutea and P. australiensis
    Percent_cover
    Percentage of the sampling unit area covered by the specified coral taxon named in column 8 (Taxon). This value is a mean value calculated by averaging replicate observations (for example, quadrats and/or transect lines) within the area defined as a site named in column 3 (Site_name). (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:60.16

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • James R. Guest
    • Peter J. Edmunds
    • Ruth D. Gates
    • Ilsa B. Kuffner
    • Eric K. Brown
    • Ku'ulei S. Rodgers
    • Paul L. Jokiel
    • Robert R. Ruzicka
    • Michael A. Colella
    • Jeff Miller
    • Andrea Atkinson
    • Michael W. Feeley
    • Caroline S. Rogers
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    University of Hawaii, California State University Northridge, National Park Service, and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    Southeast Region
    600 4Th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8048 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data were originally collected by state and federal institutions to monitor the persistence of coral reef ecosystem resources. The data were combined and analyzed as part of the of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis working group "Local-scale ecosystem resilience amid global-scale ocean change: the coral reef example". These data and subsequent analyses will be used to inform resource managers and the scientific community on the long-term prognosis for coral reef health and to help guide management decisions.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2016 (process 1 of 1)
    For each of the 123 sites where surveys occurred, mean percent coral cover was calculated as the average of all replicate transects, quadrats or stations (dependent on the sampling design for each monitoring program) surveyed within each year. The locations of fixed quadrats, transects, or stations within sites were randomly or haphazardly selected, except for two sites in St. John (Tektite 1 and Yawzi 1), which were selected based on high coral cover in 1987. Detailed descriptions of monitoring methods used and disturbance regimes for each focal location are presented in previous publications and on the monitoring programsÕ websites (Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, ÒCRAMP_HawaiiÓ: Brown et al. 2004, Jokiel et al. 2004, Rodgers et al. 2015, cramp.wcc.hawaii.edu/; Florida Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Project, ÒCREMP_FloridaÓ: Ruzicka et al. 2013, http://www.myfwc.com/research/habitat/coral/; Mo'orea Long Term Ecological Research Network, ÒMo'orea_LTERÓ: Adam et al. 2011, http://mcr.lternet.edu/; St. John, USVI, for data collected by National Park Service South Florida Caribbean Network, ÒNPS_SFCNÓ: Rogers & Miller 2006; Miller et al. 2009; Miller et al. 2017; http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/sfcn/; St. John, USVI, for data collected by California State University Northridge, ÒCSUNÓ: Edmunds 2013, and contact Peter J. Edmunds, email: peter.edmunds@csun.edu). Person who carried out this activity:
    Ilsa B Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4Th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8048 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Brown, E. K., Cox, E., Jokiel, P., Rodgers, K., Smith, W., Tissot, B., Coles, S. L., and Hultquist, J., 2004, Development of benthic sampling methods for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawai'i: Pacific Science 58(2):145-158, Honolulu, HI.

    Edmunds, P. J., 2013, Decadal-scale changes in the community structure of coral reefs of St. John, US Virgin Islands: Marine Ecology Progress Series 489:107-123, Northridge, CA.

    Jokiel, P. L., Brown, E. K., Friedlander, A., Rodgers, K. S., and Smith, W. R., 2004, Hawai'i Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: spatial patterns and temporal dynamics in reef coral communities: Pacific Science 58(2):159-174, Honolulu, HI.

    Miller, J., Muller, E., Rogers, C., Waara, R., Atkinson, A., Whelan, K., Patterson, M., and Witcher, B., 2009, Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands: Coral Reefs 28:925-937., St. John, VI.

    Miller, J., Rogers, C. S., Feeley, M. W., Atkinson, A. J., Davis, A. D., Patterson, M. E., Waara, R. J., Witcher, B. D., Patterson, J. M., and Muller, E. M., 2017, Coral reef monitoring: Protocol narrativeÑVersion 2.0. Natural Resource Report NPS/SFCN/NRR—2017/1464: National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

    Online Links:

    Rodgers, K. S., Jokiel, P. L., Brown, E. K., Hau, S., and Sparks, R., 2015, Over a decade of change in spatial and temporal dynamics of Hawaiian coral reef communities: Pacific Science 69(1):1-13, Honolulu, HI.

    Rogers, C. S., and Miller, J., 2006, Permanent 'phase shifts' or reversible declines in coral cover? Lack of recovery of two coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands: Marine Ecology Progress Series 306:103-114, St. John, VI.

    Ruzicka, R. R., Colella, M. A., Porter, J. W., Morrison, J. M., Kidney, J. A., Brinkhuis, V., Lunz, K. S., Macaulay, K. A., Bartlett, L. A., Meyers, M. K., and Colee, J., 2013, Temporal changes in benthic assemblages on Florida Keys reefs 11 years after the 1997/1998 El Niño: Marine Ecology Progress Series 489:125-141, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Adam, T. C., Schmitt, R. J., Holbrook, S. J., Brooks, A. J., Edmunds, P. J., Carpenter, R. C., and Bernardi, G., 2011, Herbivory, connectivity, and ecosystem resilience: Response of a coral reef to a large-scale perturbation: PLoS ONE 6(8):e23717, Northridge, CA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Ilsa B Kuffner
    Southeast Region
    600 4Th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    United States

    727-502-8048 (voice)
    ikuffner@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 10-Jul-2019
Metadata author:
Ilsa B Kuffner
Southeast Region
Research Marine Biologist
600 4Th Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
United States

727-502-8048 (voice)
ikuffner@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/Coral_Cover_metadata.faq.html>
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