k185ar.m77t and k185ar.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-85-AR in the Arctic from 09/04/1985 to 09/04/1985

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
k185ar.m77t and k185ar.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-85-AR in the Arctic from 09/04/1985 to 09/04/1985
Abstract:
Single-beam bathymetry data along with SINS navigation data was collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey cruise K-1-85-AR. The cruise was conducted in the Arctic on September 4, 1993. The chief scientists were Erk Reimnitz and Peter Barnes from the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology office in Menlo Park, CA. The overall purpose of this study and the geophysical source are unknown. These data are reformatted from space-delimited ASCII text files located in the Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) InfoBank field activity catalog at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/k/k185ar/html/k-1-85-ar.meta.html into MGD77T format provided by the NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The MGD77T format includes a header (documentation) file (.h77t) and a data file (.m77t). More information regarding this format can be found in the publication listed in the Cross_reference section of this metadata file.
Supplemental_Information:
The navigation data are collected using a Shipboard Integrated Navigation System (SINS). Transit satellite navigation and a number of subsystems that were used in dead reckoning between satellite fixes. These included Doppler sonar, speed-of-sound velocimeter, water temperature sensor, gyrocompass, electromagnetic speed log, radionavigation and other subsystems. SINS was highly variable and at best there was a 50 m accuracy. The Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage (DAPS) group performs a number of processing steps to the navigation data once it is collected which can vary by cruise. These steps are outlined within the header information in each individual digital navigation (.0xx, .6xx) space-delimited ASCII data file. The header information rows are indicated by lines beginning with the character "!". The single-beam bathymetry data are collected both digitally and as analog records with an unknown system. The bathymetry datasets were commonly processed using three programs: (A) Batred, which calculates depth from travel times; (B) nosamebathy, which eliminates identical adjacent bathymetry values; and (C) nozerobathy, which removes records with a depth value of "0.0". However, not all of the datasets included in this report were processed with one or more of these programs. If the data was not run through these programs it was reformatted using the most recent "best file" on InfoBank, often these were categorized by InfoBank as raw bathymetry files. Details about which processing steps were taken by the DAPS group can be found in the header information of the bathymetry and navigation ASCII files downloaded from InfoBank. Prior to reformatting the data into MGD77T format the "best" bathymetry and navigation files from InfoBank were edited to remove the header information and reformatted using Excel 2010 to separate the data into columns based on tabs. Next the bathymetry and navigation files were merged based on time and latitude and longitude. The combined navigation and bathymetry was saved as a .txt file. This combined bathymetry and navigation file was used as an input file into the GEODAS ReFormat to MDG77T program developed by NOAA's NGDC. The program outputs the reformatted data as a tab-delimited .m77t file. The program is available for use at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/gdas/gx_announce.Html. For information regarding fields found within the MGD77T files, please refer to the publication, Hittelman and others (2010), found within the Cross-reference section of this metadata file. Each MGD77T data file also has an accompanying header file (.h77t). The fields within these header files are also defined in the aforementioned publication. Fields are populated based on InfoBank metadata records, digital data file headers, and accompanying publications (often cruise reports) for the survey. If a field is unknown or did not apply to the dataset it is intentionally left blank.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, and Coastal and Marine Geology Program, 2013, k185ar.m77t and k185ar.h77t: MGD77T data and header files for single-beam bathymetry data for field activity K-1-85-AR in the Arctic from 09/04/1985 to 09/04/1985: U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Schreppel, Heather A., Degnan, Carolyn H., Metzger, Dan R., and Dadisman, Shawn V., 2013, Archive of U.S. Geological Survey selected single-beam bathymetry datasets, 1969-2000: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 757, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -152.44133
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -152.16248
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.04254
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 70.86350
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 04-Sep-1985
    Ending_Date: 04-Sep-1985
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tab-delimited ASCII text files
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Arctic from 09/04/1985 to 09/04/1985
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.25722210100002.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    k185ar.m77t
    MGD77T single-beam bathymetry data file for K185AR (Source: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center, See Hittelman and others (2010) Cross_Reference section above for details about the MGD77T format and citation information.)
    SURVEY_ID
    Survey identifier supplied by the contributing organization (Source: NGDC) This identifier varies in format and is supplied by the contributing organization
    TIMEZONE
    Time-zone correction (Source: NGDC) In our datasets, no correction was applied. All values equal 0.
    DATE
    Survey Date (Source: NGDC)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19850904
    Maximum:19850904
    Units:YYYYMMDD, (four digit year, two digit month, two digit day)
    TIME
    Time (Source: NGDC)
    Range of values
    Minimum:1136
    Maximum:1423
    Units:hours and decimal minutes
    LAT
    Latitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:70.86925
    Maximum:71.04254
    Units:decimal degrees
    LON
    Longitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-152.43226
    Maximum:-152.16248
    Units:decimal degrees
    POS_TYPE
    Indicates how lat/lon was obtained (Source: NGDC)
    ValueDefinition
    1Observed fix
    3Interpolated fix
    nilunspecified
    BAT_TTIME
    Bathymetry, 2-way travel time (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.00153
    Maximum:0.02491
    Units:seconds
    k185ar.h77t
    MGD77T single-beam bathymetry header file for K-1-85-AR (Source: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center, See Hittelman and others (2010) Cross_Reference section above for details about the MGD77T format and citation information.)
    SURVEY_ID
    Survey identifier supplied by the contributing organization (Source: NGDC) This identifier varies in format and is supplied by the contributing organization
    FORMAT_77
    Format Acronym (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    PARAMS_CO
    Parameters surveyed codes. (Source: NGDC) Status of geophysical parameters for this survey. See Hittelman and others (2010) from the Cross_Reference section above for details.
    INST_SRC
    Source Institution (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    COUNTRY
    Country (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    PLATFORM
    Platform name (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    PLAT_TYPCO
    Platform type code (Source: NGDC)
    ValueDefinition
    nilUnspecified
    1Surface Ship
    2Submersible Ship
    3Aircraft
    4Buoy
    5Mobile land
    6Fixed land
    7Deep tow
    PLAT_TYP
    Platform type (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    CHIEF
    Chief Scientist(s) (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    PROJECT
    Project, cruise, leg (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    FUNDING
    funding (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    DATE_DEP
    survey departure date (Source: NGDC)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19770427
    Maximum:20000629
    Units:YYYYMMDD (four digit year, two digit month, two digit day)
    PORT_DEP
    port of departure (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    DATE_ARR
    survey arrival date (Source: NGDC)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19770427
    Maximum:20000629
    Units:YYYYMMDD (four digit year, two digit month, two digit day)
    PORT_ARR
    port of arrival (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    NAV_INSTR
    navigation instrumentation (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    POS_INFO
    position determination method/ geodetic datum (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    BATH_INSTR
    bathymetry instrumentation (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    BATH_ADD
    additional forms of bathymetry (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    LAT_TOP
    Latitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:16.38240
    Maximum:89.98766
    Units:decimal degrees
    LAT_BOTTOM
    Latitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:16.38240
    Maximum:89.98766
    Units:decimal degrees
    LON_LEFT
    Longitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:10.30551
    Maximum:-117.13802
    Units:decimal degrees
    LON_RIGHT
    Longitude (Source: World Geodetic System 1984 Geographic Coordinate System)
    Range of values
    Minimum:10.30551
    Maximum:-117.13802
    Units:decimal degrees
    BATH_DRATE
    general digitizing rate of bathymetry (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    SOUND_VEL
    assumed sound velocity (Source: NGDC) Text string description
    VDATUM_CO
    bathymetric vertical datum (Source: NGDC) In our datasets, no correction was applied. All values equal 0.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Bathymetry and navigation data for U.S. Geological Survey bathymetry survey K-1-85-AR in MGD77T format.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Attributes are obtained from MGD77T data files created from the navigation and bathymetry best files. MGD77T is the standard, defined data format used for geophysical data in the National Geophysical Data Center. The MGD77T format contains more attributes than defined here. Attributes that were null for this data were not included. Details about other attributes can be found in Hittelman and others (2010), see Cross_Reference section above for citation details.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
    • Coastal and Marine Geology Program
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Erk Reimnitz (Chief Scientist, USGS Western Region); Peter Barnes (Chief Scientist, USGS Western Region)
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Heather A. Schreppel
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to U.S. Geological Survey
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    (727) 803-8747, ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data and information are intended for science researchers,students, policy makers, and general public. These data are not to be used for navigation purposes. The data are reformatted into MGD77T standard format for inclusion into NOAA's NGDC geophysical database. From there the data will be made available to GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) and Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org/) Earth-browsing software. Access to the data is also provided via the USGS Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 20-Dec-1999 (process 1 of 8)
    Below are the details about which processing steps were taken by the DAPS group that can be found in the header information of the ASCII files downloaded from InfoBank. Navigation Data
    Converted to time format with year at start.
    
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.GRID;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]GRIDCO.EXE;
    
    Input was...
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.DAT;1
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]4STATIONS.EXE;1
    
     Input station file for program 4stations
     Format:
     f2.0,t25,f7.1,t33,f9.1,t43,f10.1
     code  height       x         y
          10        20        30        40        50
    3456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.CON4;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]CONVERTTO4STATION.EXE;
    
    03/03/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.OUT;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]CONVERT85.EXE;
    
    estline 4 (Esook/C. Halkett) 1985 Navigation
    
    ndex
    DDhhms.s range id range id
    id=1=code 1440, Racon Twr at C. Halkett
    id=2=code 1760, Hut at Esook
    
    First row is complete.  Add JD 247, kkTenths of Sec, 0, and id codes to
    emainder of rows
    
    time    line id   range  id   range
    
    
    Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG)
    Attn: Carolyn H. Degnan
    Geophysicist
    USGS Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center, 400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7452 (voice)
    (831) 427-4748 (FAX)
    infobank@octopus.wr.usgs.gov
    Date: 31-Oct-1998 (process 2 of 8)
    Below are the details about which processing steps were taken by the DAPS group that can be found in the header information of the ASCII files downloaded from InfoBank. Bathymetry Data
    10/31/1998  /tiger/k/k185ar/bath/k-1-85-ar.300_050
    /bear/programs/edit/automerge/automerge
    
    Input was...
    Converted to time format with year at start.
    
    This file is a paste of navigation data from clint steele with the profile
    information from steve clark's work on the profile, but converted to
    represent a sound speed of 1463 m/s.  Columns 2 and 4 from this file were
    used to construct the 1985 profile off station 320.
    Column 1: Time in hours, minutes, and seconds
    Column 2: Distance to 0 point, calculated by clint steele
    Column 3: Distance to 0 point calculated by steve clark (not same 0 as
    clint's)
    Column 4: water depth in meters, speed of sound assumed to be 1463 m/s.
    Input was...
    Converted to time format with year at start.
    
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.GRID;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]GRIDCO.EXE;
    
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.DAT;1
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]4STATIONS.EXE;1
    
     Input station file for program 4stations
     Format:
     f2.0,t25,f7.1,t33,f9.1,t43,f10.1
     code  height       x         y
          10        20        30        40        50
    3456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789 123456789
    03/04/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.CON4;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]CONVERTTO4STATION.EXE;
    
    03/03/88 JEAN DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]TL485.OUT;
    DRB0:[JEAN.BARNES]CONVERT85.EXE;
    
    estline 4 (Esook/C. Halkett) 1985 Navigation
    
    ndex
    DDhhms.s range id range id
    id=1=code 1440, Racon Twr at C. Halkett
    id=2=code 1760, Hut at Esook
    
    First row is complete.  Add JD 247, kkTenths of Sec, 0, and id codes to
    emainder of rows
    
    time    line id   range  id   range
    
    time, lat, long, time(sec) to nearest nav fix, data values
    
    Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG)
    Attn: Carolyn H. Degnan
    Geophysicist
    USGS Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center, 400 Natural Bridges Drive
    Santa Cruz, CA
    USA

    (831) 460-7452 (voice)
    (831) 427-4748 (FAX)
    infobank@octopus.wr.usgs.gov
    Date: 2012 (process 3 of 8)
    A navigation file identified as the best available version in InfoBank for this cruise was copied and saved as an ASCII text file to be combined with the best available bathymetry file for processing to MGD77T format. For details regarding processing steps performed on these best available files from InfoBank, please see the header information within the original files at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/ and previous processing steps. Person who carried out this activity:
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Heather A. Schreppel
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-803-8747 ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • k-1-85-ar.050.txt
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • k185arnav.txt
    Date: 2012 (process 4 of 8)
    A bathymetry file identified as the best available version in InfoBank for this cruise was copied and saved as an ASCII text file to be combined with the best available navigation file for processing to MGD77T format. For details regarding processing steps performed on these best available files from InfoBank, please see the header information within the original files at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/. Person who carried out this activity:
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Heather A. Schreppel
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-803-8747 ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • k-1-85-ar.300_050.txt
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • k185arbathy.txt
    Date: 2012 (process 5 of 8)
    The best available bathymetry and navigation text files were concatenated into one tab-delimited file using Excel 2010 and several Visual Basic Applications (VBA) macros. InfoBank header information is removed and text is broken into columns and the rows are combined based on the presence of the same values in the time and latitude and longitude columns. Person who carried out this activity:
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Heather A. Schreppel
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-803-8747 ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • k185arbathy.txt, k185arnav.txt
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • k185arall.txt
    Date: 2012 (process 6 of 8)
    The combined bathymetry and navigation file was used as an input file into the GEODAS ReFormat to MDG77T program developed by NOAA's NGDC. The program outputs the reformatted data as a tab-delimited .m77t file. The program is available for use at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/gdas/gx_announce.Html Person who carried out this activity:
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Heather A. Schreppel
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-803-8747 ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • k185arall.txt
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • k185ar.m77t
    Date: 2012 (process 7 of 8)
    To create the accompanying header files (.h77t), an excel spreadsheet was supplied from NGDC with already populated required field names. For information for header field requirements and definitions see: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/dat/geodas/docs/mgd77.pdf. When creating a header file for each cruise, fields were populated in the header spreadsheet based on InfoBank metadata records, digital data file headers, and accompanying publications (often cruise reports) for the survey. If a field was unknown or did not apply to the dataset it was intentionally left blank. Person who carried out this activity:
    Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Heather A. Schreppel
    IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-803-8747 ext. 3013 (voice)
    hschreppel@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process: Data sources produced in this process:
    • k185ar.h77t
    Date: 29-Dec-2016 (process 8 of 8)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Hittelman, Allen M., Groman, Robert C., Haworth, Richard T., Holcombe, Troy L., McHendrie, Graig, Smith, Stuart M., and Metzger, Dan R., 2010, The marine geophysical data exchange format - MGD77 / MGD77T: National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 25 p.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The validity or accuracy of bathymetry and navigation data is highly qualitative and depends on equipment and operating condition variables. Data quality is unknown, MGD77T files were formatted from InfoBank files identified as best available version.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Unspecified
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Unspecified
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Start and end date/times of data according to DAPS group. Reasons for gaps in data varies by cruise, see InfoBank for more details.
    Navigation Data (k-1-85-ar.050 [SINS])
    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST
    198509041100000    198509041100000
    198509041137000    198509041423000
    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST
    Bathymetry Data (k-1-85-ar.300_050)
    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST
    198509041136000    198509041423000
    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST    YYYYMMDDHHMMSST
    
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This data set is from one field activity with unknown instrument calibrations. Processed bathymetric depths were spot checked based on latitude and longitude against the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) grid within GeoMapApp to ensure reasonable values.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None. These data are held in the public domain.
Use_Constraints:
This information is not intended for navigational purposes.
Read and fully comprehend the metadata prior to data use. Uses of these data should not violate the spatial resolution of the data. Where these data are used in combination with other data of different resolution, the resolution of the combined output will be limited by the lowest resolution of all the data.
Acknowledge the U.S. Geological Survey in products derived from these data. Share data products developed using these data with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 29-Dec-2016
Metadata author:
Heather A. Schreppel
Cherokee Nation Technology Solutions, contracted to the U.S. Geological Survey
IT Management Specialist/Database Support Assistant
U.S. Geological Survey, 600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL
USA

(727) 803-8747, ext. 3013 (voice)
hschreppel@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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