Beach Topography—Fire Island, New York, Post-Hurricane Sandy, April 2013: Ground Based Lidar (1-Meter Digital Elevation Model)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Beach Topography—Fire Island, New York, Post-Hurricane Sandy, April 2013: Ground Based Lidar (1-Meter Digital Elevation Model)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in Florida and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, collaborated to gather alongshore ground-based lidar beach elevation data at Fire Island, New York. This high-resolution elevation dataset was collected on April 10, 2013, to characterize beach topography following substantial erosion that occurred during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and multiple, strong winter storms. The ongoing beach monitoring is part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. This USGS data series includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, 2015, Beach Topography—Fire Island, New York, Post-Hurricane Sandy, April 2013: Ground Based Lidar (1-Meter Digital Elevation Model): U.S. Geological Survey Data Series DS 921, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Brenner, Owen, Hapke, Cheryl J., Spore, Nicholas J., Brodie, Katherine L., and McNinch, Jesse E., 2015, Ground-based lidar beach topography of Fire Island, New York, April 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series DS 921, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.228693
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.898031
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.7288894
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.622037
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 10-Apr-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground elevation
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a point data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 11,257 x 27,713, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 18
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: .999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -75.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
      Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
      Altitude_System_Definition:
      Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum 1988
      Altitude_Resolution: 0.0001 cm
      Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
      Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    20130410_CLARIS_DEM.tif
    Elevation DEM (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Elevation DEM raster created with 1m cell size.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Beach topography DEM for Fire Island, NY from ground-based lidar survey on April 10, 2013. DEM raster was interpolated from ArcGIS terrain file using linear interpolation and 1-meter cell size. XY location data is projected in NAD83 UTM zone 18N and corresponding vertical value is in NAVD88.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Cheryl J. Hapke
    600 4th Street South
    St Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8068 (voice)
    727-502-8001 (FAX)
    chapke@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

To collect, process, and disseminate beach topography along 30 km of Fire Island, NY beach, from the western boundary of Fire Island National Seashore to the Wilderness Breach.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2013 (process 1 of 7)
    Data for the survey extents was collected along with a bore-sight to resolve subtle differences between the scanner and the inertial measurement unit (IMU). After collection, the data were post-processed with multiple software packages to produce the final digital elevation model product. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) - Coastal Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) - Coastal Observation and Analysis Branch (COAB)
    Attn: Nick Spore
    Research Civil Engineer
    USACE-CEERD-HF-A, Field Research Facility
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    252-261-6840 ext: 231 (voice)
    252-261-4432 (FAX)
    nicholas.j.spore@usace.army.mil
    Contact_Instructions: http://www.frf.usace.army.mil
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 7)
    Terrestrial GPS data are post-processed with National Geodetic Survey's (NGS) continuously operating reference stations (CORS) and integrated with post-processed IMU and DMI data within Applanix's PosPac software to derive a smoothed best estimate of vehicle trajectory (SBET). After processing, quantitative quality-metrics were analyzed to ensure the trajectory accuracy met the manufacturer's specified values. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) - Coastal Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) - Coastal Observation and Analysis Branch (COAB)
    Attn: Nick Spore
    Research Civil Engineer
    USACE-CEERD-HF-A, Field Research Facility
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    252-261-6840 ext: 231 (voice)
    252-261-4432 (FAX)
    nicholas.j.spore@usace.army.mil
    Contact_Instructions: http://www.frf.usace.army.mil
    Date: 2013 (process 3 of 7)
    The SBET and bore-sight measurements are imported into Riegl's RiProcess lidar software where the lidar point cloud is geo-rectified. Control monuments and previously validated data are used for comparison to determine the accuracy of the survey. The processed point cloud is manipulated within RiProcess to delineate the shoreline, filter structures and vegetation, and classify points as water, vegetation, structures, and ground. The classified point cloud is exported as a .las file. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) - Coastal Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) - Coastal Observation and Analysis Branch (COAB)
    Attn: Nick Spore
    Research Civil Engineer
    USACE-CEERD-HF-A, Field Research Facility
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    252-261-6840 ext: 231 (voice)
    252-261-4432 (FAX)
    nicholas.j.spore@usace.army.mil
    Contact_Instructions: http://www.frf.usace.army.mil
    Date: 2013 (process 4 of 7)
    The .las file is imported into Applied Imagery's Quick Terrain Modeler software in which a mean-z (elevation) algorithm and an anti-aliasing filter are applied to the point-cloud data to grid the data at a 0.5 meter (m) resolution. After gridding is completed, the DEM (surface) is inspected for any remaining noise, such as spikes and wells, which are removed prior to final export as an American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) .xyz file. Any grid cells with no data were assigned a value of "null". Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) - Coastal Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) - Coastal Observation and Analysis Branch (COAB)
    Attn: Nick Spore
    Research Civil Engineer
    USACE-CEERD-HF-A, Field Research Facility
    Kitty Hawk, NC
    USA

    252-261-6840 ext: 231 (voice)
    252-261-4432 (FAX)
    nicholas.j.spore@usace.army.mil
    Contact_Instructions: http://www.frf.usace.army.mil
    Date: 2013 (process 5 of 7)
    Within Esri’s ArcCatalog, the ASCII xyz file was converted to an ArcGIS multipoint feature using the ASCII 3D To Feature Class tool and was projected from North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) State Plane New York Long Island (meters) to NAD 83, Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 18N (meters). The point data were converted back to ASCII xyz format for publication using the Feature Class Z to ASCII tool. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Owen Brenner
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8085 (voice)
    727-502-8001 (FAX)
    obrenner@usgs.gov
    Date: 2013 (process 6 of 7)
    The uncertainty for the interpolated DEM was determined using a methodology established by Lentz and Hapke (2011) and Lentz and others (2013) by withholding a random distribution of 10 percent of the point data from the gridding process (Create Terrain and Build Terrain tools in ArcGIS), comparing the elevations of the withheld points to the gridded surface, and calculating a root mean square error (RMSE) on the basis of the elevation differences. The resulting RMSE uncertainty of the interpolated surface was determined to be ±0.026 m. The Terrain to Raster tool in ArcGIS was then used to export the surface raster with 1-m cell size for publication. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Attn: Owen Brenner
    Geologist
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, Florida
    U.S.

    727-502-8085 (voice)
    727-502-8001 (FAX)
    obrenner@usgs.gov
    Date: 24-Jan-2017 (process 7 of 7)
    Keywords section of metadata optimized for discovery in USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Data Catalog. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Alan O. Allwardt
    Contractor -- Information Specialist
    2885 Mission Street
    Santa Cruz, CA

    831-460-7551 (voice)
    831-427-4748 (FAX)
    aallwardt@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Areas of data overlap were initially compared against each other to measure repeatability. Depending on GPS quality and distance from the base station, the accuracy of the scans varied from 5 to 15 cm. The fixed structures (i.e. houses, rooflines, decks) were used to measure repeatability and the base station benchmark was used to measure accuracy. Previous airborne lidar from a 2011-2012 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) survey was also used as an alternative fixed structure comparison. Repeatability: 5-15 cm Accuracy: 5-10 cm
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    10 cm
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    10 cm
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    complete
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Lidar beach morphology data were collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE) Coastal Lidar and Radar Imaging System (CLARIS) vehicle on April 10, 2013. The survey vehicle traveled approximately 5 kilometers per hour (km/h) along two 30 km shore parallel transits. The seaward side of the dune and the upper beach were surveyed during the first transit, and the area from near the shoreline and the lower beach were surveyed during the second transit. The survey was designed to provide an area of extensive overlap used to verify system accuracy and assess survey precision

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, as the originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, St Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL
    Attn: Cheryl J. Hapke
    600 4th Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL
    USA

    727-502-8068 (voice)
    727-502-8001 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? U.S. Geological Survey DS 921
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
Attn: Owen Brenner
Geologist
600 4th Street South
St. Petersburg, Florida
U.S.

727-502-8085 (voice)
727-502-8001 (FAX)
obrenner@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/spcmsc/FI_CLARIS2013_metadata_dem.faq.html>
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