5-m backscatter mosaic from south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket produced from sidescan-sonar and interferometric backscatter datasets

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
5-m backscatter mosaic from south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket produced from sidescan-sonar and interferometric backscatter datasets
Abstract:
Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.
Supplemental_Information:
This data release is also a companion publication to USGS OFR 2018-1181 with the following citation: Pendleton, E.A., Baldwin, W.E., Ackerman, S.D, Foster, D.S., Andrews, B.D., Schwab, W.C., and Brothers, L.L. 2018, Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Aquinnah to Wasque Point, Martha’s Vineyard, and Eel Point to Great Point, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1181, https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181181. The data in the source contributions used for this compilation are from field activities 2007-011-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2007-011-FA), 2011-004-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2011-004-FA), and 2013-003-FA (https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2013-003-FA).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2018, 5-m backscatter mosaic from south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket produced from sidescan-sonar and interferometric backscatter datasets: data release DOI:10.5066/P9E9EFNE, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A., Baldwin, Wayne E., Foster, David S., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., Brothers, Laura L., and Schwab, William C., 2018, Geospatial data layers of shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones from the inner continental shelf of Martha's Vineyard from Aquinnah to Wasque Point, and Nantucket from Eel Point to Great Point: data release DOI:10.5066/P9E9EFNE, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Pendleton, E.A., Baldwin, W.E., Foster, D.F., Ackerman, S.D., Andrews, B.D, Brothers, L.L., and Schwab, W.C., 2018, Geospatial data layers of shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones from the inner continental shelf of Martha's Vineyard from Aquinnah to Wasque Point, and Nantucket from Eel Point to Great Point: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9E9EFNE.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.8793
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.0313
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.4282
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.1946
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/5bfd6022e4b0815414ca39cf/?name=MV_ACK_backscatter_5m_browse.png (PNG)
    Composite backscatter mosaic image. The browse graphic is derived from the companion OFR (Pendleton and others, 2018).
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 09-Aug-2007
    Ending_Date: 11-Jun-2013
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of the field activities listed as source contributions
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 4951 x 14118 x 1, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.0
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0.0
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.0
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5.0
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is North_American_Datum_1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.2572221010042.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with this 8-bit GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255) with the data range 0-254. Although most of the small slivers and data gaps within the mosaic have a value of 0. No data is set to 255. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values).
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This backscatter intensity mosaic was created as a single image of the acoustic reflectivity of the sea floor south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket, Massachusetts. Generally, higher backscatter values (light tones) represent rock, boulders, cobbles, gravel, and coarse sand. Lower values (dark tones) usually represent fine sand and muddy sediment. In this final form and at the input resolutions, these data helped define the sediment texture and distribution maps presented as interpretive data layers in USGS OFR 2018-1181.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Denny and others, 2009 (source 1 of 3)
    Denny, J.F., Danforth, W.W., Foster, D.S., and Sherwood, C.R., 2009, Geophysical data collected off the south shore of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2008-1288, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication provides the source sidescan sonar for the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory area. Data were acquired with an L3-Klein Associates 3000 digital, dual-frequency, sidescan-sonar system (www.l-3klein.com). The sidescan-sonar was towed aft of the M/V Megan Miller. The resolution of the sidescan sonar mosaic was 5 meters per pixel.
    Andrews and others, 2014 (source 2 of 3)
    Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., Baldwin, W.E., Foster, D.S., and Schwab, W.C., 2014, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provides sidescan sonar for offshore of western Martha's Vineyard. The area of interest in this study was conducted aboard the Scarlett Isabella in 2011. Acoustic backscatter data were collected with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency sidescan-sonar (132 and 445 kHz). The area used in this study is on the western side of Martha's Vineyard.
    Ackerman and others, 2016 (source 3 of 3)
    Ackerman, S.D., L.L., Brothers, Foster, D.S., B.D., Andrews, W.E., Baldwin, and W.C., Schwab, 2016, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From the Inner Continental Shelf: South of Martha's Vineyard and North of Nantucket, Massachusetts: Open File Report 2016-1168, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication provides interferometric-sonar backscatter collected south of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket. The data were collected aboard the M/V Scarlett Isabella in 2013 using a 234 kHz Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd. (SEA) SWATHplus interferometric sonar. Small cross-track gaps in backscatter occur likely as a result of the ship pitching in rough seas. These gaps were not filled or interpolated. These data are 1-meter resolution
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2017 (process 1 of 4)
    Collected the input datasets: All the backscatter images came from USGS Open-File Reports: USGS OFR 2008-1288 - sonar_05m.tif USGS OFR 2012-1006 - vs_backscatter_1m.tif USGS OFR 2016-1168 - 2013-003-FA _Backscatter1m.tif Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-5488700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Denny and others, 2009; Andrews and others, 2014; Ackerman and others, 2016
    Date: 2017 (process 2 of 4)
    All of the input images were loaded into PCI Geomatica 2013 OrthoEngine (version 2013 SP2 2013-6-10) and mosaicked into a composite backscatter GeoTIFF at 5-meters per pixel (which corresponds to the coarsest input image: sonar_5m.tif). The brightness levels were adjusted within PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine using the color balance tool on the final mosaic backscatter GeoTIFF image to tone-match the imagery. Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-5488700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • All input tiff mosaics
    Date: 2017 (process 3 of 4)
    The final backscatter mosaic GeoTIFF image was clipped in ArcGIS (10.5) using a polygon feature class to remove portions of the input data within Vineyard Sound, as this area fell outside of the study area of this report (ArcToolbox - Data Management Tools - Clip (with output extent set to polygon feature and use input features for Clipping Geometry checked)). Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-5488700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • final composite mosaic and polygon outline of final mosaic extent
    Date: 07-Aug-2020 (process 4 of 4)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2013, Geologic Mapping of the Massachusetts Seaflor: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Geologic mapping of the Massachusetts seafloor is a cooperative effort that was initiated in 2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-NOS) is also an important partner and contributes hydrographic data that are integrated into the maps. The overall goal of this cooperative is to determine the geologic framework of the sea floor inside the 3-mile limit of State waters, using high-resolution geophysical techniques, sediment sampling, and sea-floor photography. These topographic and bathymetric source data related to the composite backscatter image are cited in detail in the source citation section of this metadata file.
    Baldwin, Wayne E., Foster, David S., Pendleton, Elizabeth A., Barnhardt, Walter A., Schwab, William C., Andrews, Brian D., and Ackerman, Seth, 2016, Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2016-1119, US Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Foster, David S., Baldwin, Wayne E., Barnhardt, Walter A., Schwab, William C., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., and Pendleton, Elizabeth A., 2015, Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E., Barnhardt, Walter A., Baldwin, Wayne E., Foster, David S., Schwab, William C., Andrews, Brian D., and Ackerman, Seth D, 2015, Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Salisbury to Nahant, Massachusetts, including the Merrimack Embayment and Western Massachusetts Bay: Open-File Report 2015-1153, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A., Baldwin, Wayne E., Barnhardt, Walter A., Ackerman, Seth D., Foster, David S., Andrews, Brian D., and Schwab, William C., 2013, Shallow Geology, Seafloor Texture, and Physiographic Zones of the Inner Continental Shelf from Nahant to Shallow Geology, Seafloor Texture, and Physiographic Zones of the Inner Continental Shehttps://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1157/: Open-File Report 2012-1157, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The horizontal accuracy of sidescan sonar backscatter is assumed to be 10 meters according to the USGS Open-File Reports from which the input data were obtained. The mosaicking process in PCI used to combine all the source backscatter mosaics could introduce additional horizontal errors. This composite backscatter intensity mosaic is assumed to be horizontally accurate to within 25-meters, as additional errors could have been introduced during resampling, horizontal projections, and mosaicking within PCI.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This mosaic includes sidescan sonar and interferometric backscatter data collected during several cruises. The input mosaics can be viewed by visiting the websites listed in the source information. Only portions of some of the input survey data (i.e. Andrews and others, 2014) were used to create the composite backscatter mosaic. In other words, a bounding polygon was used to clip the final mosaic extent to the study area interest.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This backscatter mosaic was created from several backscatter datasets that were processed and published as TIFF images (see Source Information for the individual input images). The source images were enhanced by stretching and color balancing, then the individual images were combined to create a seamless backscatter mosaic. The source data (input mosaics) can be downloaded from the websited listed in the source contributions. Two of the datasets included in this mosaic used a Klein 3000 sidescan sonar to acquire the backscatter data, while the third dataset was collected using an interferometric system.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Attn: GS ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center, Building 810, Mail Stop 302
    Denver, CO
    United States

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? MV_ACK_backscatter_5m.tif is an 8-bit GeoTIFF image with a world file of backscatter data collected south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket. The dataset includes a browse graphic (MV_ACK_backscatter_5m.png) and associated CSDGM metadata in XML format.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The image is available as a LZW compressed GeoTIFF with a world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, or an image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a TIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Aug-2020
Metadata author:
Elizabeth Pendleton
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
ependleton@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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