Georeferenced TIFF image displaying 1 meter resolution backscatter data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area, Gulf of Mexico in 2000 (UTM Zone 16N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF image)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Georeferenced TIFF image displaying 1 meter resolution backscatter data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area, Gulf of Mexico in 2000 (UTM Zone 16N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF image)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 22 square miles of the Madison Swanson Marine Protected Area (MPA) and Steamboat Lumps MPA, which are located on the Florida shelf edge in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico in 2000 using sidescan sonar and high-resolution chirp seismic-reflection systems. This survey was conducted as part of a larger study of the effectiveness of no-fishing reserves in protecting grouper spawning aggregations. Field activity information for this cruise is available on-line through the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System at https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fa=2000-005-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2016, Georeferenced TIFF image displaying 1 meter resolution backscatter data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area, Gulf of Mexico in 2000 (UTM Zone 16N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF image): data release DOI:10.5066/F7JD4TVC, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Scanlon, Kathryn M., and Buczkowski, Brian J., 2016, High-resolution geophysical data collected in the Madison Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Areas, Gulf of Mexico in 2000, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2000-005-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7JD4TVC, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -84.803800
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -84.597571
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 28.252913
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 28.047552
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2000-005-FA/data/backscatter/2000-005-FA_SL_lg.png (PNG)
    Browse graphic of the sidescan-sonar mosaic of the Steamboat Lumps area of field activity 2000-005-FA.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 22-Feb-2000
    Ending_Date: 01-Mar-2000
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 22392 x 19841 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 16
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -87.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The pixel value (1-255) indicates the reflectance of the sea-floor surface. Light areas (high value) contain highly reflective substrate types, while fine-grained sediment produces a low reflectance and is found in dark areas (low value). A value of zero represents no data.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey data processor.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Kathryn M. Scanlon
    Research Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2323 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    kscanlon@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

The sidescan-sonar data were collected and processed during USGS field activity 2000-005-FA to map the surficial geology of the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2000 (process 1 of 7)
    The SIS 1000 towfish by Datasonics was used to collect all of the sidescan-sonar data at a 400 meter total swath width. The data were recorded using ISIS by Triton Elics International in QMIPS format. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Kathryn M. Scanlon
    Research Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2323 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    kscanlon@usgs.gov
    Date: 2000 (process 2 of 7)
    XSonar processing software (Danforth and others, 1991) was used to process the sidescan sonar QMIPS files. The files were demultiplexed using a 4x3 sample interval and a normalization value of 8192. The scan size was 768 pixels, and the output resolution was 0.781250 meters. A command-line script was used to help remove surface noise. An example of the command line is: removeSurface -S20 -p10 -s10 -N10 -O0.6 -i l35f1. -o l35f1new. Manual bottom tracking was used in order to remove the water column from the swaths with the slant range correction. Destriping and beam angle corrections were applied using 300 lines with a 100 ping overlap; maximum beam angle of 90; response angle = 55; data normalization = 0; port/starboard tone adjust = ON. This processing effectively aids in suppressing speckle noise and reding file size, and corrects for slant-range distortion, signal attenuation, and dropped sonar pings. This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by VeeAnn A. Cross.
    
    
    Danforth, W. W., T. F. O'Brien, and W. C. Schwab. 1991. US Geological Survey Image Processing System: Near Real-Time Mosaicking of High-Resolution Sidescan-Sonar Data. Sea Technology, Jan. 1991: 54-59.
    
    
    Danforth, W., 1997, Xsonar/ShowImage; a complete system for rapid sidescan sonar processing and display: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-686, 77 p. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 2000 (process 3 of 7)
    The individual lines were then processed with the WHIPS software package to additionally filter the lines using a 7 line filter and mapping the odd and even lines into separate georeferenced images for mosaicking in PCI software (Paskevich 1992; Paskevich 1996). These images had a pixel resolution of 1 meter/pixel.
    
    
    Paskevich, V. F. 1992. Digital Mapping of Sidescan Sonar Data with the Woods Hole Image Processing System Software. Open-File Report 92-536, 87 pp.
    
    
    Paskevich, V. F. 1996. MAPIT: An Improved Method for Mapping Digital Sidescan Sonar Data using the Woods Hole Image Processing System (WHIPS) Software. Open-File Report 96-281, 73 pp.
    Date: 2000 (process 4 of 7)
    Non-overlapping swaths were then brought into the remote sensing software package PCI Geomatics. Two channels were used so that one channel (line by line) could be brought in and mapped - mosaicked - to the other channel by picking control points to further constrain the positioning of the line. The lines set as "true" were the even lines, and the odd lines were mapped to those using control points. The final mosaic was then exported from PCI as a TIFF image with an associated world file for georeferencing purposes. GeoTiffExamine was then used to add the world file information to the TIFF image transforming it into a GeoTIFF.
    Date: 06-Apr-2017 (process 5 of 7)
    The online links to the data were updated to reflect the new server hosting the data. Additionally, other small edits could be made to the metadata, such as modifying http to https where appropriate. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 6 of 7)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 7 of 7)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Capone, Mark, Scanlon, Kathryn M., and Swift, B. Ann, 2002, Archive of Chirp Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise ORGN00005, Northeastern Gulf of Mexico, 15 February - 2 March, 2000: Open-File Report 2002-045, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Differential GPS, with an Ashtech BR2G beacon receiver, was used to navigate the ship. The towfish navigation system was a Benthos DS 7000 acoustic deck set that used range to towfish to account for layback of the towfish. The position of the towfish was corrected using HYPACK and ISIS software. The range to fish did not always work well. The assumed approximate horizontal offset is 20-30 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This mosaic represents all of the processed backscatter data collected in the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area during USGS field activity 2000-005-FA. The line numbers falling in this particular area are L54F1 to L1121F (which was intended to be L121F1). Also misnamed is L1120F1, which should have been L120F1. Line L122F1 is a tie line that runs southwest to northeast across the study area and is not included in the mosaic. L65F1 was missing a large section of navigation (45 minutes) so just straight extrapolation was used when mapping that file. L69F2 is actually outside the study area. Line 69 was continued in order to avoid a collision with another vessel. L82F1 was not processed - the gear was pulled. The line was rerun as L82F2. During L102F1 navigation was lost after the Julian Day change. Navigation was manually created at 00:09, 00:19, and 00:29 based on the distance between points earlier in the line assuming a constant ship speed and direction. The turns are not included in the mosaic.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This is a GeoTIFF image and associated world file of the data originally collected on field activity 2000-005-FA, recorded by ISIS acquisition system and processed while at sea. All files in this mosaic were acquired with a 400 meter swath width (200 meter range). These files were acquired with 12 dB of gain.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset. These data are not to be used for navigation.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Brian J. Buczkowski
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Physical Scientist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2361 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The 2000-005-FA_SL_sss.zip file contains the GeoTIFF image 2000-005-FA_SL_sss.tif and the associated world file 2000-005-FA_SL_sss.tfw. In addition to the image and world file, the zip file also contains the FGDC CSDGM metadata in the following formats: XML, HTML, and text.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This WinZip file contains a GeoTIFF image file, a world file, and associated metadata files. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of viewing GeoTIFF image files.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Brian J. Buczkowski
U.S. Geological Survey
Physical Scientist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
USA

508-548-8700 x2361 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/field_activities/2000_005_fa/2000-005-FA_SL_sssmeta.faq.html>
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