Temperature, specific conductance, and salinity data collected with a YSI 30 handheld system in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, May 15, 2009 on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Temperature, specific conductance, and salinity data collected with a YSI 30 handheld system in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, May 15, 2009 on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA
Abstract:
As part of a larger investigation to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, a geophysical survey was conducted from a small research boat on 14-15 May 2009. The specific research objective was to gain an improved understanding of the role of direct groundwater discharge in delivery of excess nitrogen to the bay, which may have contributed to the development of low-oxygen conditions in waters of the bay and associated fish kills. Data collected in this survey included digital navigation information, continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data, and point salinity measurements. The CRP method is a survey and data processing approach that is sensitive to differences in electrical properties of surface water and underlying porewater in sediments that have contrasting salinities. During the survey, Greenwich Bay salinity was approximately 27 ppm, so surface water would be expected to have low electrical resistivity (high conductivity), and any areas of active groundwater discharge from less salty aquifer sources would yield relatively higher resistivity values. This survey is identified as field activity 09021 (also referenced as 2009-021-FA) by the U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and additional information is available from: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2009-021-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Cross, VeeAnn A., 2018, Temperature, specific conductance, and salinity data collected with a YSI 30 handheld system in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, May 15, 2009 on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7DR2TSX, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, M.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Bratton, John F., and Cross, VeeAnn A., 2018, Continuous Resistivity Profiling Data and Associated Data from Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island collected in 2009, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7DR2TSX, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Bratton, J.F., and Cross, V.A., 2018, Continuous resistivity profiling data and associated data from Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island collected in 2009, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2009-021-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7DR2TSX.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.446261
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.371875
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.681668
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.654557
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2009-021-FA/data/chemistry/2009-021-FA_YSIdata.jpg (JPEG)
    Browse graphic of the YSI data locations.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 15-May-2009
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Entity point (10)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    2009-021-FA_YSIdata.shp
    Esri point shapefile (Source: Esri)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    location
    Geographic location name given to the location of the YSI 30 measurement. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey chief scientist) Character set.
    time
    Local time in the format HH:MM indicating when the YSI 30 measurement was made. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey chief scientist) Character set. Although the field is not numeric, the numbers do represent the time of day.
    utmzone
    The UTM zone where the data were collected. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey chief scientist.) Character set, with the 19 portion of the string indicating UTM Zone 19 North. The T refers to the latitude grid zone between 40N and 48N.
    easting
    Easting coordinate of the point in UTM, Zone 19, WGS 84 projection. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey chief scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:296385
    Maximum:302520
    Units:meters
    northing
    Northing coordinate of the point in UTM, Zone 19, WGS 84 projection. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey chief scientist)
    Range of values
    Minimum:4614194
    Maximum:4617231
    Units:meters
    temp_c
    Surface water temperature value in degrees Celsius recorded by the YSi sensor. (Source: Data processor.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:14.6
    Maximum:16.7
    Units:degrees Celsius
    sal_ppt
    Surface water salinity measured by the YSI sensor in parts per thousand. (Source: Data processor.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:25.5
    Maximum:27.8
    Units:ppt
    cond_mSpcm
    Surface water specific conductance as measured by the YSI 30. This value is temperature compensated and in the units milli-Siemens per centimeter. (Source: Data processor.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:32.53
    Maximum:34.64
    Units:milli-Siemens per centimeter
    cond_Spm
    Surface water conductivity value software calculated based on the YSI temperature and salinity measurements, assuming a pressure of 0 dbars. (Source: Website software generated.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:3.254414
    Maximum:3.462127
    Units:Siemens per meter
    res_ohm_m
    Surface water resistivity value calculated as the inverse of the water conductivity value. (Source: Data processor.)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0.28884
    Maximum:0.307275
    Units:ohm-meters
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Included in the zip file of the dataset is the Excel 2003 spreadsheet that is discussed in the process steps. The shapefile was generated directly from sheet 2 of the spreadsheet and the attribute definitions are the same. Sheet 1 of the spreadsheet is described in the process steps and has additional useful information supplied by the chief scientist. Sheet 2 was also saved as a CSV file.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • VeeAnn A. Cross
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This point shapefile provides geographic locations and sensor data from the YSI 30 that are used to determine water conductivity values. Also included is the Excel spreadsheet used to derive the shapefile.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    YSI data (source 1 of 1)
    Bratton, John F., 2015, YSI data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disk
    Source_Contribution:
    The YSI 30 is a handheld system. The unit was placed in the water and measurements taken at 10 locations in Greenwich Bay. The measurements are surface water temperature, salinity, and specific conductance measurements. The specific conductance measurements were temperature-compensated.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 15-May-2009 (process 1 of 9)
    The temperature, salinity, and specific conductance values were measured with the YSI 30 handheld system. The measured values were recorded manually by the chief scientist in his log book, along with the UTM Zone 19, WGS 84 easting and northing values of the measurement location as read from the Lowrance GPS system. The time recorded with the measurement information is local time. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: John F. Bratton
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    Contact_Instructions:
    John F. Bratton is currently with LimnoTech in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Date: 2009 (process 2 of 9)
    The YSI 30 measured values were transferred to an Excel 2003 spreadsheet. Additional information regarding collection specifics (common name geographic location, collection date, instrument, data collector) were also added to the spreadsheet. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: John F. Bratton
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    Contact_Instructions:
    John F. Bratton is currently with LimnoTech in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Date: May-2009 (process 3 of 9)
    To be consistent with previous resistivity work, the temperature and salinity values recorded by the YSI 30 will be used to calculate the water resistivity value. Two additional columns were added to the Excel spreadsheet. One was the conductivity value in Siemens per meter (S/m) that will be calculated, and the other is the conversion of this value to resistivity in ohm-meters (ohm-m). The website used was: http://www2.sese.uwa.edu.au/~hollings/pilot/denscalc.html which is no longer a valid link. On this website, pressure was entered as 0 dbar. Temperature based on the value in the spreadsheet. Salinity based on the value in the spreadsheet. The conductivity value, in S/m, was recorded to the spreadsheet. These values were in close agreement with the specific conductance values measured by the YSI 30. The resistivity value is simply 1/conductivity, so that calculation was done in Excel and recorded in the resistivity column. This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by the same person - VeeAnn A. Cross. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: May-2009 (process 4 of 9)
    A second sheet was added to the spreadsheet in order to reformat the information for import into ArcGIS. This primarily meant using column heading names that would be acceptable to import into ArcGIS. Additionally, average water resistivity value was calculated based on the measured values.
    Date: 2009 (process 5 of 9)
    The second sheet of the Excel spreadsheet was exported as a comma-delimited text file. The schema.ini file (which controls how data are interpreted by ArcGIS) was edited so that certain fields (time) would import as text. Date/time fields can be problematic in ArcGIS. I also used the schema.ini to shorten the column heading names. The schema.ini file is as follows:
    
    [GreenwichBaySalinitiesMay2009_vmod.csv]
    Format=CSVDelimited
    ColNameHeader=True
    Col1=location Text Width 50
    Col2=time Text Width 10
    Col3=utmzone Text Width 10
    Col4=easting Long
    Col5=northing Long
    Col6=temp_c Float
    Col7=sal_ppt Float
    Col8=cond_mSpcm Float
    Col9=cond_Spm Float
    Col10=res_ohm_m Float
    
    
    Using ArcMap 9.2 - Tools - Add XY data with X field as easting, Y field as northing, and defined the coordinate system as UTM, zone 19, WGS 84 - added the csv file as an event theme in ArcMap. This event theme was then exported to a shapefile using the data export option from the right-mouse click of the event theme in the table of contents. Data sources used in this process:
    • Greenwich Bay Salinities May 2009_vmod.xls
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • GreenwichBaySalinitiesMay2009_vmod.csv
    • gbaysal_may09.shp
    Date: Jul-2013 (process 6 of 9)
    The point shapefile of the YSI 30 measurement locations was projected from a UTM, Zone 19, WGS 84 projection to a geographic coordinate system - WGS 84. This was done in ArcCatalog 9.3.1 - ArcToolbox - Data Management Tools - Projections and Transformations - Feature - Project. Because the datum is the same in both projections, no datum transformation was necessary. Data sources used in this process:
    • gbaysal_may09.shp
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • gbaysal_may09_geog.shp
    Date: 2015 (process 7 of 9)
    Filename was changed to include the field activity number for publication purposes. Data sources used in this process:
    • gbaysal_may09_geog.shp
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • 2009-021-FA_YSIdata
    Date: 12-Apr-2018 (process 8 of 9)
    Exported sheet 2 of the Excel spreadsheet to a CSV file using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. This was done in order to provide the data in an open data format.
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 9 of 9)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The navigation system used was a Lowrance 480M with an LGC-2000 Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna. The GPS is assumed to be accurate to within 10 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This represents all the YSI 30 data collected for U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2009-021-FA.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All of the original YSI 30 data collected on the cruise is included, as well as the calculations deriving water resistivity values and the reformatted data.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
The public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The 2009-021-FA_YSIdata.zip file contains the 2009-021-FA_YSIdata shapefile and its components, a CSV of the data (2009-021-FA_YSIdata.csv), an Excel spreadsheet of the data (2009-021-FA_GreenwichBaySalinities.xls), a browse graphic (2009-021-FA_YSIdata.jpg), and the FGDC CSDGM metadata in the following formats: XML, HTML, and text.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The user must have software capable of extracting the data from a zip file and of reading a shapefile and an Excel spreadsheet. This shapefile filename starts with a number and has dashes in it. This filename may not work with some geoprocessing or ArcPy scripts and may need to be renamed.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
VeeAnn A. Cross
U.S. Geological Survey
Marine Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

(508) 548-8700 x2251 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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