Text files of the navigation logged by HYPACK during the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Text files of the navigation logged by HYPACK during the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of western Fire Island, NY. Seismic-reflection data, surficial grab samples and bottom photographs and video were collected along the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf. The purpose of this survey was to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on this coastal region. These data were compared to seismic-reflection and surficial sediment data collected by the USGS in the same area in 2011 to evaluate any post-storm changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf. For more information about the WHCMSC Field Activity, see: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2014-009-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2017, Text files of the navigation logged by HYPACK during the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014 (Geographic, WGS 84, HYPACK ASCII Text Files): data release DOI:10.5066/F7FF3QTQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, Jane F., Schwab, William C., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., Danforth, William W., Moore, Eric, Nichols, Alex R., and Worley, Charles R., 2017, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-009-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7FF3QTQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.313743
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.976662
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.679967
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.593182
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 19-Oct-2014
    Ending_Date: 26-Oct-2014
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: text data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Point data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Not all files contain the same HYPACK strings, but this list represents all the HYPACK strings represented in the files. These are the original files; no corrections have been made.
    
    
    During UGSS cruise 2014-009-FA, the TELEDYNE RESON T20-P multibeam echosounder was tested; no data were collected for research and/or data analysis. Some fields within the HYPACK navigation files were setup for the T20-P and associated systems such as the ODIM Brooke Ocean Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) 30. These fields contain usable data, however they were not used for any additional data analysis (Fields: DEV 3, DEV 2, TID, KTC, PRD).
    
    
    The times recorded in the navigation file are in UTC. Keywords and the information they provide are as follows:
    
    
    FTP: The first record located at the top of the header used to identify the file format.
    
    
    VER: HYPACK version number.
    
    
    INF: General survey information filled in by the data technician. This typically contains the survey participants, the vessel name, other agencies involved with the survey, and the location of the survey. The three numbers at the end refer to initial tide correction at start-of-line, initial draft correction at start-of-line and sound velocity from the navigation parameters. NOTE: within some files the survey area is listed as "Offshore Delmarva Pennisula" which is incorrect. The survey area was offshore of Fire Island, Long Island, New York.
    
    
    ELL: Ellipsoid information. The name of the ellipsoid followed by the semi-major axis in meters and the flattening ration.
    
    
    PRO: Project information record where TME indicates Transverse Mercator and the central meridian of -75 indicates UTM, zone 18.
    
    
    DTM: Datum transformation record.
    
    
    GEO: Geoid model. Blank if not present. Note: During survey 2014-009-FA geoid g2012a-CONUS.geo was used.
    
    
    HVU: Horizontal and Vertical Units (meters).
    
    
    TND: Survey time and date in UTC.
    
    
    DEV 0: Indicates that lines collected with device designation 0 are lines of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) collected with the Ashtech BRG2 receiver. (The Ashtech BR2G was used as the primary antenna during JD299, starting with file 000_1804.299)
    
    
    DEV 1: Indicates that the lines with device designation 1 are lines of Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) data collected with the Ashtech ProFlex 800 GPS RTK receiver. (The Ashtech ProFlex 800 GPS RTK receiver was used as the primary navigation receiver from JD292 through JD299 file 000_1253.299)
    
    
    DEV 2: Indicates that the lines with device designation 2 are lines of center beam depth transmitted from the Reson T20-P multibeam echosounder via serial interface. *** The Teledyne Reson T20-P was tested during USGS cruise 2014-009-FA. The center beam depth information was stored in the Hypack raw files to be used as depth input for the MVP-30. ***
    
    
    DEV 3: Indicates that the lines with device designation 3 are lines of NMEA Output.
    
    
    DEV 4: Indicates that the lines with device designation 4 are lines of instrument information "DGPS_at_stern". Note: this device was labeled "Disabled" throughout the survey.
    
    
    DEV 5: Indicates that the lines with device designation 5 are lines of Applanix POS M/V attitude and position system. Note: this device was labeled "Disabled" throughout the survey.
    
    
    OFF: Device Offsets in the format "OFF dn n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7" where dn = device number; n1 = starboard or port offset (positive starboard); n2 = forward or aft offset (positive forward); n3 = height (antenna) or depth (transducer draft) offset; n4 = yaw rotation angle (positive for clockwise rotation); n5 = roll rotation angle (port side up is positive); n6 = pitch rotation angle (bow up is positive); n7 = device latency in seconds.
    
    
    DDT:identifies the device synchronizing the computer's time, where KTC is Kinematic Tide Corrections
    
    
    PRD: Private Device Data, which has multiple formats depending on the type of device generating the data. For example, KTD is a Kinematic Tide Datum File that can be used to apply offsets to RTK values to establish corrected heights.
    
    
    LIN 3: planned line data follows where X indicates the number of waypoints.
    
    
    PTS: planned line waypoints (easting and northing, UTM, zone 18N, meters).
    
    
    LBP: planned line begin point (easting and northing, UTM zone 18N, meters).
    
    
    LNN: planned line name.
    
    
    EOL: end of planned line
    
    
    USR: user information
    
    
    EOH: end of header.
    
    
    The remaining elements have similar information in the first 3 columns. The first column will indicate the data type, the second column will indicate the device that recorded the information (e.g. 0 for Ashtech BRG2 DGPS) and the third column is the time tag (seconds past midnight) that is also sometimes referred to as the latency. The remaining information on each line is specific to the data type. Not all data types were recorded in each HYPACK file.
    
    
    POS: Position of the ship in the format "POS dn t x y" where dn=device number; t=time tag (seconds past midnight); x=easting; y=northing. On this cruise these values are in UTM, Zone 18, WGS84.
    
    
    QUA: Position quality information in the format "QUA dn t n m h sat mode" where dn=device number; t=time tag (seconds past midnight); n=number of values to follow; m = 10 minus HDOP (horizontal dilution of precision); h=HDOP; sat=number of satellites; mode=GPS mode (NMEA 0183 standard values) where 0 = fix not available or invalid; 1 = GPS fix; 2 = Differential GPS fix; 3 = GPS PPS Mode fix; 4 = RTK fix; and 5 = RTK Float. The last 3 values are decoded from GST message: standard deviation of latitude error (meters); standard deviation of longitude error (meters); Standard deviation of semi-major axis of error ellipsis (meters).
    
    
    RAW: Position information in the format "RAW dn t n lat long alt utc" where dn=device number; t=time tag (seconds past midnight); n=number of values to follow; lat=raw latitude in the format ddmmmm.mmmm. To convert to ddmm.mmmmm multiply by 100; long=raw longitude in the format ddmmmm.mmmm. To convert to ddmm.mmmmm multiply by 100; alt=antenna altitude above ellipsoid (meters); utc=GPS time in the format HHMM.
    
    
    MSG: Message string in the format "MSG dn t message" where dn=device number; t=time tag (seconds past midnight); message is the message sent from the device. During survey 2014-009-FA there were several different messages were sent from the GPS systems. These message strings will be defined below. ($ECDPT is depth below transducer)
    
    
    TID: Tide correction in the format "TID dn t dc" where dn=device number, t=time tag (seconds past midnight), dc = draft correction.
    
    
    KTC: Describes how HYPACK records water levels (tide corrections) when using RTK where “KTC dn t nv eh lh u kval offset draft final” where dn = device number, t=time tag (seconds past midnight, matches GPS position), nv=number of values, eh= WGS84ellipsoidal height (from GPS), lh= local ellipsoidal height (on local ellipsoid), u=undulation, kval= K value, offset= antenna offset, draft=draft correction, final=final tide.
    
    
    EC1: Echo sounding (singe frequency) in the format "EC1 dn t rd" where dn=device number, t=time tag (seconds past midnight), rd=raw depth. The center beam of the Teledyne RESON T20-P was used as input for the depth measurement. *** Teledyne Reson T20-P was tested during USGS cruise 2014-009-FA. ***
    
    
    GYR: Gyro data (heading) in the format "GYR dn t h" where dn=device number, t=time tag (seconds past midnight), h=heading.
    
    
    HCP: Heave Compensation in the format "HCP dn t h r p" where dn=device number, t=time tag (seconds past midnight), h=heave in meters, r=roll in degrees (+ port side up), p=pitch in degrees (+ bow up).
    
    
    FIX: events marked manually by the user in the format "FIX dn t event_number" where dn=device number (typically 99 as there is no device for manual events); t=time tag (seconds past midnight); event_number=event number such as 1,2,3,4.
    
    
    The (National Marine Electronics Association) NMEA strings $GPGGA, $ECDPT, $ECDBS, $GPALM are stored in HYPACK files. (Some erroneous messages with the following strings appear within some files: $GP,GGA $444GP, $PCSI, $GPG1G.) These are defined as follows.
    
    
    $GPGGA is GPS fix data in the format "$GPGGA, t, lat, lath, long, longh, q, sat, h, a, M, alt, M, t2, refcheck" where t=time in UTC in the format hhmmss.ss; lat=latitude in the format ddmm.mmmmmm; lath= N or S indicating the latitude hemisphere; long=longitude in the format dddmm.mmmmmm; longh=E or W indicating the hemisphere; q=fix quality where 0=fix not available or invalid; 1=GPS fix; 2=Differential GPS fix; 3=GPS PPS Mode fix; 4=RTK fix; 5=RTK float; sat=number of satellites; h=Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP); a=Antenna altitude above mean sea level (geoid); M= units of antenna altitude in meters; alt=height of geoid above WGS84 ellipsoid; M=units of geoidal height in meters; t2=time since last DGPS update; refcheck=DGPS reference station id and the checksum.
    
    
    Example: $GPGGA,173356.00,4204.848996,N,07036.929067,W,4,09,01.1,00003.278,M,-028.888,M,01,0000*56 UTC Time = 173356 Latitude = 4204.848996 N Longitude = 7036.929067 W Fix Quality = 4 (indicates RTK) Number of satellites = 9 HDOP = 01.1 relative accuracy of horizontal position Altitude = 3.278 meters above mean sea level Height of geoid above WGS84 ellipsoid = -28.888 meters Time since last update = 01 Checksum = *57.
    
    
    $ECDPT is depth information in the format "$ECDPT, x.x, f, x.x, M, x.x, F*hh", where X.X is depth in feet, f=feet, x.x is depth in meters, M=meters, x.x, depth in fathoms, F=Fathoms, *hh= checksum.
    
    
    Example: $ECDPT,27.70,4.32,105.00*47, where 27.70 is depth in feet, 4.32 is depth in meters, and 105 is depth in fathoms, *47 is checksum.
    
    
    $ECDBS is depth below the surface in the format "$ECDBS,x.x,f,x.x,M,x.x,F*hh" where x.x is depth in feet, f=feet, x.x is depth in meters, M=meters, x.x is depth in fathoms, F=fathoms, and *hh=checksum.
    
    
    Example: $ECDBS,27.60,f,8.41,M,4.60,F*1C, where 27.6 is depth in feet, 8.41 is depth in meters, 60 is depth in fathoms, and *1C is checksum.
    
    
    $GPALM is GPS alamanac data in the format $GPALM, x.x, x.x,xx,x.x,hh,hhhh,hh,hhhh,hhhh,hhhhhh,hhhhhh,hhhhhh,hhh,hhh,*hh where x.x=total number of messages, x.x is message number, xx is satellite PRN number (01 to 32), x.x is GPS week number: date and time in GPS is computed as number of weeks from 6 January 1980 plus number of seconds into the week, hh is SV health, bits 17-24 of each almanac page, hhhh is eccentricity, hh is almanac reference time, hhhh is inclination angle, hhhh is rate of right ascension, hhhhhh is root of semi-major axis, hhhhhh is argument of perigee, hhhhhh is longitude of ascension node, hhhhhh is mean anomaly, hhh is F0 clock paramter, hh is F1 clock parameter, and *hh is checksum.
    
    
    Example: $GPALM,32,1,01,1815,00,1D99,4E,0C1C,FD3E,A10CEB,11F83A,4FB58A,645F0D,018,000*4E, where 32 = total number of messages, 1 = message number, 01 = satellite PRN number, 1815 = GPS week number, 00=SV health, 1D99 is eccentricity, 4E is Almanac reference time, 0C1C is inclination angle, FD3E is rate of right ascension, A10CEB is root of semi-major axis, 11F83A is argument of perigee, 4FB58A is longitude of ascension node, 645F0D is mean anomaly, 018 is F0 clock parameter, 000 is F1 Clock parameter, *4E is checksum.
    
    
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    The definitions of the HYPACK strings were acquired from the HYPACK software manual available from: http://www.hypack.com/. The definitions of the NMEA strings were obtained from: http://home.mira.net/~gnb/gps/nmea.html

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

These data are supplied to provide the raw navigation collected during USGS field activity 2014-009-FA. HYPACK software (version 14.0.9.47) was used to log these navigation data.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    none (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2017, Raw HYPACK Navigation Data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    Raw navigation data were saved in HYPACK format (http://www.hypack.com). File name convention is LLL_TTTT.DDD, where LLL is the HYPACK line number, TTTT is the 24 hour time for the beginning of the file, and DDD is the Julian day (JD). Times were recorded in UTC (Coordinate Universal Time). HYPACK version 14.0.9.47 was used for data logging.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2014 (process 1 of 2)
    Raw HYPACK navigation files were transferred from the navigation acquisition computer to a data server for accessibility and archival. The raw HYPACK navigation files are stored in separate directories indicating the acquisition Julian Day (JD292 through JD299), corresponding to October 19 - October 26, 2014; only one data file was collected on JD296 (October 21, 2014), as data collection was suspended due to poor weather conditions. The filenames in each folder are in the format of linenumber_starttime.julianday. For example, filename 001_1101.292 represents HYPACK line number 001, start time 1101 and Julian Day 292. Times are recorded in UTC (Coordinate Universal Time). Julian Day directories also contain a LOG file that lists the files recorded during that julian day. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne E. Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 2 of 2)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Denny, Jane F., Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Bergeron, Emile, and Moore, Eric, 2015, High-resolution geophysical data collected offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011, USGS Field Activity 2011-005-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F75X2704, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Hapke, Cheryl J., Lentz, Erika E., Gayes, Paul T., Denny, Jane F., List, Jeffrey H., and Warner, John C., 2013, Geologic Evidence for Onshore Sediment Transport from the Inner Continental Shelf: Fire Island, New York: Journal of Coastal Research Volume 29, Issue 3, pp. 526-544., Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Inc., Florida, USA.

    Online Links:

    Foster, David S., Swift, Ann B., and Schwab, William C., 1999, Stratigraphic Framework Maps of the nearshore area of southern Long Island from Fire Island to Montauk Point, NY: Open-File Report 99-559, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Thieler, E. Robert, Denny, Jane F., Danforth, William W., and Hill, Jenna C., 2000, Seafloor sediment distribution off southern Long Island, New York: Open-File Report 00-243, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, W.C., Denny, J.F., and Baldwin, W.E., 2014, Maps Showing Bathymetry and Modern Sediment Thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York, Pre-Hurricane Sandy: Open-File Report 2014-1203, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This publication contains the backscatter image generated from data collected during WHCMSC field activity 2011-005-FA.
    Schwab, W.C., Baldwin, W.E., and Denny, J.F., 2014, Maps Showing the Change in Modern Sediment Thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York, Between 1996-97 and 2011: Open-File Report 2014-1238, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Denny, Jane F., Hapke, Cheryl J., Gayes, Paul T., List, Jeffrey H., and Warner, John C., 2014, Modification of the Quaternary stratigraphic framework of the inner-continental shelf by Holocene marine transgression: An example offshore of Fire Island, New York: Marine Geology Volume 355, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Goff, J.A., Flood, R.D., Austin, J.A., Schwab, W.C., Christensen, B., Browne, C.M., Denny, J.F., and Baldwin, W.E., 2015, The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf of Fire Island, New York: Large bedform migration and limited erosion: Continental Shelf Research v. 98, pp. 13-25, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Denny, Jane F., Danforth, William W., Couch, Stephen, and Schwab, William C., 2015, Swath bathymetry collected offshore of Fire Island and western Long Island, New York in 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-072-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7C827BX, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Real-Time Kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS), Differential GPS (DGPS) and Wide Area Augmentation System-enabled DGPS (DGPS+WAAS) data were collected during survey 2014-009-FA using Ashtech ProFlex 800 RTK-GPS and Ashtech BR2G receivers. Positioning data from these receivers was logged using HYPACK navigation software version 14.0.9.47 (http://www.hypack.com). These data were incorporated into the geophysical data during acquisition and logged to HYPACK files in the event that post-processing the horizontal and vertical positional information was necessary. The DGPS positional accuracy is estimated to be within 3-5 m; WAAS enable DGPS accuracy is estimated to be less than 3 m and the accuracy of RTK-GPS is estimated to be less than 1 m. (http://oceanservice.noaa.gov; http://www.ngs.noaa.gov; http://www.nstb.tc.faa.gov; http://www.navcen.uscg.gov).
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Real-Time Kinematic GPS height data (referenced to WGS 84 Ellipsoid) were recorded using HYPACK, Inc. (http://www.hypack.com). RTK-GPS provides vertical accuracies less than 1 m (http://www.navcen.uscg.gov).
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These files represent all of the raw navigation recorded by the HYPACK software during USGS field activity 2014-009-FA.Only one navigation file was collected on JD296 (10/23/2014), as data collection was suspended due to rough weather and poor sea state.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    These are the original files recorded by the HYPACK navigation software. These data were checked but no modifications or corrections have been made to these files. The line numbers represented in the HYPACK files do not necessarily correspond to geophysical line numbers.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset. These data are not to be used for navigation.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? 2014-009-FA_hypack.zip - Contains raw HYPACK navigation files recorded during USGS 2014-009-FA Field Activity offshore of Fire Island, NY. The raw HYPACK files serve as a navigation archive and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) metadata files in four standard formats.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This WinZip file contains the ASCIII text file and associated metadata files. To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of viewing text files and parsing the HYPACK navigation strings.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Jane F. Denny
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
USA

508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/field_activities/2014_009_fa/2014-009-FA_hypack_meta.faq.html>
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