Location of bottom photographs along with images collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Location of bottom photographs along with images collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)
Abstract:
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical and sampling survey in October 2014 that focused on a series of shoreface-attached ridges offshore of western Fire Island, NY. Seismic-reflection data, surficial grab samples and bottom photographs and video were collected along the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf. The purpose of this survey was to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on this coastal region. These data were compared to seismic-reflection and surficial sediment data collected by the USGS in the same area in 2011 to evaluate any post-storm changes in seabed morphology and modern sediment thickness on the inner continental shelf. For more information about the WHCMSC Field Activity, see: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2014-009-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2017, Location of bottom photographs along with images collected in 2014 by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY (JPEG images and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84): data release DOI:10.5066/F7FF3QTQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, Jane F., Schwab, William C., Ackerman, Seth D., Baldwin, Wayne E., Danforth, William W., Moore, Eric, Nichols, Alexander R., and Worley, Charles R., 2017, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected offshore of Fire Island, NY in 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-009-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7FF3QTQ, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.215621
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -72.934362
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.693125
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.610296
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2014-009-FA/data/imagery/2014-009-FA_photos_browse.jpg (JPG)
    Thumbnail image of sea floor photograph locations collected by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Fire Island, NY, 2014.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 26-Oct-2014
    Ending_Date: 26-Oct-2014
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster and vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    2014-009-FA_photos
    Bottom photographs and locations (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    FID
    Internal feature number. (Source: Esri) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Shape
    Feature geometry. (Source: Esri) Coordinates defining the features.
    PICNAME
    Name of bottom photograph used to uniquely identify between stations, cameras, and photographs: i.e. 2014-009-FA_G0106726.JPG, where 2014-009-FA refers to the field activity identifier and G0106726.JPG refers to the sequential image number assigned to the image by the camera. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish photographs.
    CAMERA
    GoPro camera used to collect bottom photograph. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish between different camera models mounted on the SEABOSS.
    GPS_TIME
    UTC time of bottom photograph from GPS navigation file in format HH:MM:SS. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) UTC time of bottom photograph determined by the GPS.
    CAMR_TIME
    Camera time of bottom photograph from the camera in format HH:MM:SS. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Camera time of bottom photograph determined from the camera's internal clock set to UTC.
    TIMEOFFSET
    Offset applied, if any, to match the photograph up to the correct time determined by the GPS navigation. This field is the time difference between the camera time and the GPS time in UTC in the format HH:MM:SS. A value of "00:00:00" indicates no offset was applied in processing. If the camera time were X seconds behind the GPS time, a positive offset of +X would be applied. If the camera were Y seconds ahead of the GPS time, a negative office of -Y would be applied. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) Offset time of bottom photograph.
    LONG
    Longitude in Geographic Coordinates, WGS 84. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-73.215621
    Maximum:-72.934362
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    LAT
    Latitude in Geographic Coordinates, WGS 84. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:40.610296
    Maximum:40.693125
    Units:decimal degrees
    Resolution:0.00001
    JD
    Julian day; Julian day is the integer number representing the interval of time in days since January 1 of the year (299 for these data). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:299
    Maximum:299
    Units:days
    Resolution:1
    DATE
    Date that the bottom photograph was collected in the format: YYYYMMDD (20141026 for these data). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:20141026
    Maximum:20141026
    Units:date
    Resolution:1
    YEAR
    Year that the bottom photograph was collected (2014 for these data). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:2014
    Maximum:2014
    Units:years
    Resolution:1
    CRUISE_ID
    WHCMSC field activity identifier (e.g. "2014-009-FA" where 2014 is the survey year, 009 is survey number of that year, and FA is Field Activity). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to distinguish cruises by year and ID number.
    DEVICE_ID
    Device used to collect the sample and bottom photograph. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to identify the SEABOSS configuration used during the survey.
    VEHICLE_ID
    Vehicle (ship) used to collect data during survey 2014-009-FA. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String used to identify the survey vessel.
    FIELD_NO
    Sequential station number scheme designated in the field. This number corresponds to the sample locations. (Source: Modified from USGS East Coast Sediment Texture Database data dictionary) Character string.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The JPEG images can be hyperlinked to their shapefile location in ArcGIS.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset is used to display the images and locations of bottom photographs acquired with a GoPro Hero 3+ Black on a modified SEABed OBservation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) collected during a 2014 USGS cruise along Fire Island, New York. The information contained within the bottom photographs is needed to validate geophysical data. This dataset contains seabed images from each bottom photograph station, as well as location in Geographic coordinates (WGS84), time of day and date of collection. Physical sediment samples, which provide additional information about the seabed, were also collected at photograph stations and analyzed in the sediment laboratory at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (see shapefile 2014-009-FA_samples.shp available from the larger work citation).

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    JPEG images and text data (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Bottom Photographs and Navigation.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    The SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for rapid and effective collection of seabed images and sediment samples in coastal regions. The observations from video and still cameras and the sediment data are used to explore the nature of the seafloor and, in conjunction with high-resolution geophysical data, to make interpretive maps of sedimentary environments and validate the acoustic remote sensing data. This particular setup of the SEABOSS was simplified using the modified Van Veen sediment sampler and only GoPro cameras and dive lights to collect sea floor photographs and video without a top-side live video feed. No depth sensor was on the system. In general, the SEABOSS is a simple system that can be deployed from both small and large surface vessels and operates in water depths up to 200m. It typically incorporates two video cameras, a still camera, a depth sensor, and a modified Van Veen sediment sampler. The elements of this particular SEABOSS system are held within a stainless steel framework that measures 1.1 x 1.1 meters and weighs 167 kilograms overall. The frame has a stabilizer fin that orients the system as it drifts over the seabed. The SEABOSS was deployed from the M/V Scarlett Isabella off the ship's A-frame on the stern of the ship. The vessel occupied one of the target stations and deployed the SEABOSS. The winch operator lowered the sampler until the seafloor was sampled. On most stations, the vessel and sampler drifted with wind and current for a few tens of seconds to let the bottom settle and ensure a decent image. The system was then raised and recovered to the deck of the survey vessel. The camera time during this survey was set to UTC; calibration photographs with the navigation system indicate that the time offset only drifted by up to 13 seconds throughout the survey and this time offset was not corrected for during processing.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Nov-2014 (process 1 of 5)
    Twenty-five stations were occupied aboard the M/V Scarlett Isabella (USGS survey 2014-009-FA) with a modified SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001) that was equipped with a Van Veen grab sampler and two GoPro cameras (Hero 3+ Black, and Hero2) collecting video and photographs. JPEG photographs were acquired at each station. (NO quality images were acquired at sample location 18). The digital photographs were downloaded from the camera and backed-up to a laptop and hard-drive periodically during the sampling survey. The original JPEG photographs alone do not represent spatial data, however, post-processing the photographs with the navigation data and survey notes makes the link to spatially locate the imagery. The link is possible because the JPEG photographs EXIF header records acquisition time which can be matched with corresponding time in the navigation logs. However, camera time drift and the precision with which the camera time can be set often results in an offset. In this case, the offset was negligible, ranging from 5 and 13 seconds off of real GPS time, therefore no offset correction was applied to the photographs in this dataset. Only the photos from the primary camera, the GoPro Hero 3+ Black were processed and are being published. This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by the same person - Seth Ackerman Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • JPEG photographs
    Date: Dec-2016 (process 2 of 5)
    The GoPro photographs were culled to remove photos during deployment and recovery of the SEABOSS including images of the water column and those on the deck of the survey vessel. Blurry or otherwise not clear images of the sea floor were removed (unless no other clear image of the sea floor was available). Then a series of PYTHON scripts (SEABOSStools) was run to match up the quality photos with the navigation log. (1) parseHYPACKfolder_gui_sort_all.py - PYTHON script that parses HYPACK navigation data files and outputs formatted UTC time, date, latitude and longitude from the appropriate source GPS device. (2) JPEG_exifextract_gui_sort.py - PYTHON script that extracts the EXIF header information from each photograph including the JPEG filename, date and time. (3) photo_locs_gui_5_4exif.py - PYTHON script that matches up the corresponding date and times from the formatted output of the previous two PYTHON scripts. A time offset, if any, would be applied while running script. The output of this is the location shapefile for the bottom photographs including a comma-delimited text file (CSV) with the fields filename, UTC date, UTC time, latitude and longitude. Data sources used in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    • RAW Hypack log files
    • survey notes
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Bottom Photograph Location Shapefile
    • Bottom Photograph Location Comma-delimited Text File
    Date: May-2017 (process 3 of 5)
    XTools Pro (version 12.0) for ArcGIS (version 10.3.1) was used to reorganize add new fields (TABLE OPERATIONS - TABLE RESTRUCTURE) to the point shapefile including an attribute for the survey ID (CRUISE_ID), device used to collect the photos and samples (DEVICE_ID), the survey vessel (VEHICLE_ID), the date of photo collection (DATE) and the Camera used (CAMERA).
    Date: May-2017 (process 4 of 5)
    A PYTHON script (UpdatePhotoEXIFv3b.py) was then run that incorporated the matched up location data, along with additional survey information, into the appropriate locations in the EXIF header of each JPEG image. The PYTHON script uses exiftool (version 10.47) to write the information to the image headers. The following tags were populated in the JPEG image headers. Information is duplicated in some tags. This was done because different software packages access different tags.GPS tags: The values populated are unique for each image and based on the information from the process of pairing the photo with locations in the navigation logfiles.
    GPSLatitudeRef
    GPSLatitude
    GPSLongitudeRef
    GPSLongitude
    GPSTimeStamp
    GSPDateStamp
    
    JPEG tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Comment: Photo from oblique-looking GoPro Hero 3+ Black on the USGS SEABOSS deployed from the M/V Scarlett Isabella
    during survey 2014-009-FA (https://cmgds.er.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2014-009-FA)
    
    EXIF tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    ImageDescription: Photograph of the sea floor off Fire Island, New York from survey 2014-009-FA
    Artist: Jane Denny
    Copyright: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    
    IPTC tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
    Contact: WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov
    Keywords: Fire Island, New York Bight, New York, 2014-009-FA, SEABOSS, sea floor, USGS
    CopyrightNotice: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    Caption-Abstract: Photograph of the sea floor off Fire Island, New York from survey 2014-009-FAXMP tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Caption: Photograph of the sea floor off Fire Island, New York from survey 2014-009-FA
    
    
    To extract the information from the image headers using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 10.47):
    exiftool -csv -f -filename -GPSTimeStamp -GPSDateStamp -GPSLongitude -GPSLatitude -n -Artist -Credit -comment -keywords -Caption -Copyright -CopyrightNotice -Caption-Abstract -ImageDescription imgtest/*.jpg > out.csv
    
    The -csv flag writes the information out in a comma-delimited format. The -n option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees.
    
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • New (EXIF updated) JPEG photographs
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 5 of 5)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Denny, Jane F., Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Bergeron, Emile, and Moore, Eric, 2015, High-resolution geophysical data collected offshore of Fire Island, New York in 2011, USGS Field Activity 2011-005-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F75X2704, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Hapke, Cheryl J., Lentz, Erika E., Gayes, Paul T., Denny, Jane F., List, Jeffrey H., and Warner, John C., 2013, Geologic Evidence for Onshore Sediment Transport from the Inner Continental Shelf: Fire Island, New York: Journal of Coastal Research Volume 29, Issue 3, pp. 526-544., Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Inc., Florida, USA.

    Online Links:

    Foster, David S., Swift, Ann B., and Schwab, William C., 1999, Stratigraphic Framework Maps of the nearshore area of southern Long Island from Fire Island to Montauk Point, NY: Open-File Report 99-559, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Thieler, E. Robert, Denny, Jane F., Danforth, William W., and Hill, Jenna C., 2000, Seafloor sediment distribution off southern Long Island, New York: Open-File Report 00-243, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, W.C., Denny, J.F., and Baldwin, W.E., 2014, Maps Showing Bathymetry and Modern Sediment Thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York, Pre-Hurricane Sandy: Open-File Report 2014-1203, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This publication contains the backscatter image generated from data collected during WHCMSC field activity 2011-005-FA.
    Schwab, W.C., Baldwin, W.E., and Denny, J.F., 2014, Maps Showing the Change in Modern Sediment Thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf Offshore of Fire Island, New York, Between 1996-97 and 2011: Open-File Report 2014-1238, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schwab, William C., Baldwin, Wayne E., Denny, Jane F., Hapke, Cheryl J., Gayes, Paul T., List, Jeffrey H., and Warner, John C., 2014, Modification of the Quaternary stratigraphic framework of the inner-continental shelf by Holocene marine transgression: An example offshore of Fire Island, New York: Marine Geology Volume 355, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Goff, J.A., Flood, R.D., Austin, J.A., Schwab, W.C., Christensen, B., Browne, C.M., Denny, J.F., and Baldwin, W.E., 2015, The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf of Fire Island, New York: Large bedform migration and limited erosion: Continental Shelf Research V. 98, pp. 13-25, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Denny, Jane F., Danforth, William W., Couch, Stephen, and Schwab, William C., 2015, Swath bathymetry collected offshore of Fire Island and western Long Island, New York in 2014, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2014-072-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F7C827BX, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The GoPro Hero 3+ black camera used on the modified SEABOSS acquired photos at 8 Megapixels; file sizes are generally between 1 and 2 MB on disc. Image quality and photo interval was reduced for Hero 3+ to allow space on camera card for bottom video.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The original JPEG photographs alone do not represent spatial data, however post-processing the photographs with the navigation data and survey notes provides a link to spatially locate the imagery. Navigation for survey 2014-009-FA used Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). The recorded position of each photo is actually the position of the GPS antenna on the survey vessel, not the SEABOSS sampler. The SEABOSS was deployed approximately 5 meters astern of the RTK-GPS antenna for samples 1 through 19, and approximately 3 meters astern of the DGPS antenna for samples 20 through 25. Throughout the sampling the SEABOSS was deployed off the ship's A-frame on the stern of the ship. No layback or offset was applied to the recorded position. In addition to the +/- 3 to 5 meter offset the SEABOSS may drift away from the survey vessel when deployed. Based on the various sources for horizontal offsets, a conservative estimate of the horizontal accuracy of the bottom photograph locations is 20-30 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset includes bottom photographs in JPEG format and a shapefile of the locations of photographs collected during USGS survey 2014-009-FA aboard the M/V Scarlett Isabella off of Fire Island, New York. Twenty-five sampling sites were occupied within the study area using a modified SEABOSS. Station 18 does not have a corresponding bottom photograph. Bottom photographs taken in the water column, on deck or otherwise not useful for seafloor characterization were deleted. In general, at least one photograph was included for each site where the sea floor or suspended sediment at the sea floor is visible in the image. A total of 59 photographs are included in this dataset, so several sites had more than one photograph from that general location. Photos published here were from the GoPro Hero3+ Black. Images from an secondary camera (GoPro Hero 2) served as a backup and were not processed.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Gaps in sequential photo numbers exist. Generally, photos without a clear view of the sea floor were deleted. If the camera was triggered accidentally on deck or the picture did not come out, it was deleted. Every effort was made to keep a least one photo from each sampler deployment. For some sampling sites, only a blurry image of the sea floor or an image with significant suspended sediment that masked the sea floor, was available. Despite the low image quality, these images were included in the dataset. Suspended sediment in a photograph may be used as a proxy for surficial sediment grain-size when used in conjunction with other data such as co-located video; however in these cases, the analyses of co-located sediment samples provide reliable sediment grain-size data (see shapefile in this data release, 2014-009-FA_samples.shp).

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? USGS data release 2014-009-FA contains bottom photograph locations and images (59 total images) of the seafloor collected from the offshore of Fire Island, NY (2014-009-FA-FA_photos.zip). The zip file contains the following shapefile: 2014-009-FA_photos.shp (and the other files assocaited with a shapefile) and seafloor photographs (JPEG Format) for the GoPro Hero 3+ Black camera. A browse graphic of photo locations (2014-009-FA_photos_browse.jpg) and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) metadata files (2014-009-FA_photos_meta.xml) in four standard formats are also included in the zip file.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in point shapefile format. The user must have software capable of reading shapefile format to use these data. An image viewer can be used to see the JPEG images.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Seth Ackerman
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
sackerman@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/field_activities/2014_009_fa/2014-009-FA_photos_meta.faq.html>
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