Seabed still images in JPEG format and image locations collected on Stellwagen Bank during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2016-004-FA, aboard the R/V Auk, January 28, 2016

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Page C. Valentine
Publication_Date: 2021
Title:
Seabed still images in JPEG format and image locations collected on Stellwagen Bank during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 2016-004-FA, aboard the R/V Auk, January 28, 2016
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P934L7PN
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P934L7PN
Online_Linkage: Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Page C. Valentine
Originator: VeeAnn A. Cross
Publication_Date: 2021
Title:
Station Information, Seabed Imagery, and CTD Instrument Data Collected on Stellwagen Bank in January 2016, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2016-004-FA
Edition: 1.0
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P934L7PN
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Suggested citation: Valentine, P.C., and Cross, V.A., 2021, Station information, seabed imagery, and CTD instrument data collected on Stellwagen Bank in January, 2016 U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2016-004-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P934L7PN .
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P934L7PN
Online_Linkage:
Description:
Abstract:
This field activity is part of the effort to map geologic substrates of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts. The overall goal is to develop high-resolution (1:25,000) interpretive maps, based on multibeam sonar data and seabed sampling, showing surficial geology and seabed sediment dynamics. This cruise was conducted in collaboration with the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, and the data collected will aid research on the ecology of fish and invertebrate species that inhabit the region. The Sanctuary's research vessel, R/V Auk, visited 19 locations on Stellwagen Bank at which a customized Van Veen grab sampler (SEABOSS) equipped with a video camera and a CTD was deployed in drift mode to collect sediment for grain-size analysis, video imagery of the seabed, and measurements of water column properties.
Purpose:
To provide images of the sea floor acquired with the SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS). These data provide ground-truth information for geophysical datasets and are used in seabed interpretations.
Supplemental_Information:
The locations for each image can be extracted from the EXIF header of the images (described in the process steps). Alternatively, the image locations are available from the 2016-044-FA_station_data_summary file available from the Larger Work citation.
Additional information regarding the field activity can be obtained from https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-004-FA . The grain-size analyses of the sediment samples collected during this field activity are available in a separate publication (Valentine and Cross, 2019; link available from the cross-reference citation).
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 20160128
Currentness_Reference:
Ground condition of when data were collected. There was one day of data collection: January 28, 2016.
Status:
Progress: complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.27053
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.20766
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.19790
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.17582
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Metadata Identifier
Theme_Keyword: USGS:6c337242-4599-4824-b449-64a1178eaeed
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program
Theme_Keyword: CMHRP
Theme_Keyword: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Theme_Keyword: WHCMSC
Theme_Keyword: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Theme_Keyword: NOAA
Theme_Keyword: ground-truth
Theme_Keyword: seabed images
Theme_Keyword: JPEG
Theme_Keyword: SEABed Observation and Sampling System
Theme_Keyword: SEABOSS
Theme_Keyword: video image grab
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: location
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: marine geology
Theme_Keyword: image collections
Theme_Keyword: underwater photography
Theme_Keyword: sea-floor characteristics
Theme_Keyword: field monitoring stations
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) keywords
Theme_Keyword: photographic sampling
Theme_Keyword: seabed
Theme_Keyword: marine geology
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Atlantic Ocean
Place_Keyword: Stellwagen Bank
Place_Keyword: Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
Place_Keyword: SBNMS
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts Bay
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Page C. Valentine
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2239
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pvalentine@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Browse graphic of an example seabed still image on Stellwagen Bank.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: D.S. Blackwood
Originator: K.F. Parolski
Publication_Date: 2001
Title: Seabed observation and sampling system
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Sea Technology
Issue_Identification: v. 42, no. 2, p.39-43
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Arlington, VA
Publisher: Compass Publications, Inc.
Other_Citation_Details:
This is an article describing the development of the SEABOSS. This can be helpful to get an idea of what the system looks like, even though specific equipment associated with it has changed over time.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: P. Valentine
Originator: D. Blackwood
Originator: K. Parolski
Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Seabed observation and sampling system
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: FS-142-00
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
This is a short, older publication describing the SEABOSS. This can be helpful to get an idea of what the system looks like, even though specific equipment associated with it has changed over time.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.3133/fs14200
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs142-00/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Page C. Valentine
Originator: VeeAnn A. Cross
Publication_Date: 2019
Title:
Location and analyses of sediment samples collected on Stellwagen Bank off Boston, Massachusetts from November 5, 2013 to April 30, 2019 on U.S. Geological Survey field activities
Series_Information:
Series_Name: data release
Issue_Identification: DOI:10.5066/P9FWFLPD
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
This publication includes the sediment sample analyses information associated with this field activity and 19 other field activities.
Online_Linkage: https://doi.org/10.5066/P9FWFLPD
Online_Linkage:
Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The image names are in the format staXXXX_Y.jpg where XXXX is the station number and Y is the image number at that station. Each station has 2 images - one showing a broader view of the landscape (Y=1) and the second a close-up of the seabed (Y=2). The difference in view is related to the closeness of the SEABOSS to the seafloor. See the cross-references for a description of the SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001; Valentine and others, 2000). The two images from a station are not from the same geographic location on the video drift, but the EXIF header information in each is the same. This is because the video source imagery did not display time. The latitude and longitude of the two images is based on the station location time recorded in the cruise log book (the location of a sediment sample, or if no sample was collected, the video drift end location). The latitude and longitude of stations recorded in the log book were later adjusted to match the latitude and longitude recorded at that time in the GPS navigation file. The 2016-004-FA_station_data_summary (available from the Larger Work citation) station locations are the same as the image locations at each station.
Completeness_Report:
Each station has 2 images - one showing a broader view of the landscape and the second a close-up of the seabed that was recorded when sampling was attempted. With 19 stations, this makes a total of 38 JPEG images. In some images from shallow depths, ambient daylight is the dominant light source and causes the images to have a “greenish” coloration.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Although the images do not represent spatial data, the spatial information is available in the EXIF header of each image, which is derived from the station location in the station data summary file (available from the Larger Work citation). The location information for stations was acquired from a satellite navigation receiver (Furuno Satellite Compass SC-30, GPS receiver) at two second intervals with a horizontal accuracy of 10 m. The navigation antenna is located 5.3 m forward of the SEABOSS deployment location. This offset was not accounted for in the navigation acquisition (navigation fixes represent antenna location). The SEABOSS may also drift away from the survey vessel when deployed to the sea floor.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Seabed video was collected using two battery-operated, high-definition (1920 x 1080 pixels) GoPro Hero 4 Black digital video cameras and a SeaViewer high-definition (1920 x 720 pixels) digital camera mounted on the USGS SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS). The SeaViewer camera had a live feed to the surface and was used only to observe obstacles, like gill nets and lobster gear, in order to avoid entanglement. In case of camera failure, the additional cameras provided backup video. All images collected here were acquired with a GoPro camera. As the SEABOSS drifted over the seabed, the GoPro cameras imaged the seabed at a rate of 60 frames per second from an altitude of ~1 meter. Lighting was provided by two battery-operated Keldan LED video lights. Each light provided a light flux of up to 9000 lumens at a correlated color temperature of 5000 kelvin. Two parallel red lasers mounted 20 centimeters apart provided a scale in the video images.
Video imagery includes the launch and recovery of the SEABOSS, transit through the water column, and the drift over the seabed. The duration of individual video files ranges from 3.3 to 5.6 minutes. Video files are archived in .MP4 format and range in size from 0.8 to 1.3 gigabytes.
These video files are not part of this data release. Video files are archived at the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, 384 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543.
Process_Date: 2016
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Page C. Valentine
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2239
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pvalentine@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Video frame-grab images were extracted from high-definition (1920 x 1080 pixels) GoPro digital video using open source VLC Media Player software (version 2.0.0) developed by the VideoLAN project ( http://www.videolan.org/vlc/index.html ).
Two video frame-grab images are provided for each station. One image (staXXXX_1) shows a broad view of the landscape as the SEABOSS drifted over the seabed. The second image (staXXXX_2) shows a close-up of the seabed as the SEABOSS was stationary during the collection of the sediment sample. Where visible, the two parallel red lasers mounted 20 cm apart provide a scale.
Process_Date: 2019
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Page C. Valentine
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2239
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pvalentine@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Using 2016-004-FA_station_data_summary.csv, the approximate time and location of each photo was derived. The location (latitude and longitude), date, and time for each station was extracted from the CSV file. This information was reformatted using an AWK script so that the following columns of information are available: image name (based on the station number), latitude, longitude, GPS time (in the format HH:MM:SS), and GPS date (in the format YYYYMMDD). This information was written to a CSV file - 2016-004-FA_image_locations.csv
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: 2016-004-FA_station_data_summary.csv
Process_Date: 2020
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: 2016-004-FA_image_locations.csv
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A Python script (writeexif_2_readfile_03_01_21_IDS.py executed with IDLE version 2.7.14 on a Windows 2010 machine) was run that incorporated the information from 2016-004-FA_image_locations.csv, along with additional information, into the appropriate tags in the EXIF header of each GoPro grab image. Although the two images from each station are not from the exact same place, the same information for that station was populated in each photo. The Python script uses ExifTool ( version 11.54 https://exiftool.org ) to write the information to the image headers of the full-resolution images. The following tags were populated in the JPEG image headers. Information is duplicated in some tags because different software packages access different tags.

GPS tags: The values populated are unique for each station and based on the information exported from 2016-004-FA_station_data_summary.csv with the exception of the datum and area information. The date and time stamps are based on UTC.

GPSLatitudeRef
GPSLatitude
GPSLongitudeRef
GPSLongitude
GPSTimeStamp
GSPDateStamp
GPSMapDatum : EPSG:4326 (WGS 84)
GPSAreaInformation: Position post-processed from GPS on ship

Another element that is unique for each image is the XMP tag for the original filename.
OriginalFileName

JPEG tag: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it, which is the same for every image.

comment: Image grabs from a GoPro digital video camera mounted on the USGS SEABOSS deployed from the R/V Auk during survey 2016-004-FA ( https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-004-FA ).

EXIF tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it, which is the same for every image.

ImageDescription: Image grab of the sea floor on Stellwagen Bank, MA from survey 2016-004-FA
Artist: Page C. Valentine
Copyright: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
UserComment: Image part of USGS data release https://doi.org/10.5066/P934L7PN
Make: GoPro

IPTC tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it, which is the same for every image.

Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact: WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov
keywords: Stellwagen Bank, Massachusetts, 2016-004-FA, SEABOSS, sea floor, USGS, ground-truth, https://doi.org/10.5066/P934L7PN
CopyrightNotice: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
Caption-Abstract: Image grab of the sea floor on Stellwagen Bank, MA from survey 2016-004-FA

XMP tag: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image except for the ImageUniqueID, which is unique for each image.

Caption: Image grab of the sea floor on Stellwagen Bank, MA from survey 2016-004-FA
AttributionURL: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-012-FA
Author: Page C. Valentine

Another script run in Python Notebooks (Image_PIDwork.ipnb) was used to mint a unique persistent identifier (image PID) for each image and placed in the header. Additionally, the persistent URL for the metadata record associated with this dataset was also inserted into the image header.

XMP tag:

ImageUniqueID: The persistent identifier (PID) value minted in the Persistent Identifier Registration (PIR) Tool
ExternalMetadataLink: https://www1.usgs.gov/pir/api/identifiers/XXXXX
UsageTerms: Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.

From the command-line in Cygwin, the image name was also added to the header with the following command: exiftool -P "-originalfilename<Filename" *.jpg

To extract the information from the image headers using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 11.54, slight modifications of the command might be necessary depending on the operating system of the user):

exiftool.exe -csv -f -filename -GPSTimeStamp -GPSDateStamp -GPSLongitude -GPSLatitude -n -GPSMapDatum -GPSAreaInformation -Artist -Credit -comment -contact -keywords -Caption -Copyright -CopyrightNotice -Caption-Abstract -ImageDescription -UserComment -AttributionURL -GPSAreaInformation -Author -Contributor -ImageUniqueID -ExternalMetadataLink -Make -UsageTerms -OriginalFileName *.jpg > out.csv

The -csv flag writes the information out in a comma-delimited format. The -n option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees. Whether you use exiftool or exiftool.exe will depend on the system on which the command is being run.
Process_Date: 2020
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference:
Location information in the EXIF header and also indicated by the station location in the station data summary file (available from the Larger Work citation).
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.00001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.00001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Although the images do not have attributes per se, the EXIF header information can be extracted or viewed to give additional information about each image. The process step explains how to extract the information from the image header, and is replicated here.
To extract the information from the image headers using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 11.54):

exiftool.exe -csv -f -filename -GPSTimeStamp -GPSDateStamp -GPSLongitude -GPSLatitude -n -GPSMapDatum -GPSAreaInformation -Artist -Credit -comment -contact -keywords -Caption -Copyright -CopyrightNotice -Caption-Abstract -ImageDescription -UserComment -AttributionURL -GPSAreaInformation -Author -Contributor -ImageUniqueID -ExternalMetadataLink -Make -UsageTerms -OriginalFileName *.jpg > out.csv

The -csv flag writes the information out in a comma-delimited format. The -n option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees. Whether you use exiftool or exiftool.exe will depend on the system on which the command is being run.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Page C. Valentine
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2239
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pvalentine@usgs.gov
Resource_Description:
2016-004-FA_SeabedImages.zip contains the 38 JPEG images that are frame grabs from the video (2 images at each station), the browse graphic (2016-004-FA_seabedimage_browse.jpg), and the FGDC CSDGM metadata in XML format.
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS or the U.S. Government shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: JPEG
Format_Information_Content:
The ZIP file contains JPEG image files, the browse graphic, and the associated FGDC CSDGM metadata.
Transfer_Size: 17
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information: Access_Instructions:
The first link is to download the data in a ZIP file. The second and third links, the latter of which is the DOI designation of the publication, both go to the landing page of the data.
Fees: none
Technical_Prerequisites:
The ZIP file contains images in JPEG format. The user must have software capable of uncompressing the ZIP file and viewing the JPEG images.
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20210524
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: VeeAnn A. Cross
Contact_Position: Marine Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Rd.
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 508-548-8700 x2251
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 508-457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

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