1-meter resolution image mosaic representing sidescan sonar data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field activity 2016-030-FA offshore Sandwich Beach, MA in June 2016 (24-bit GeoTIFF, UTM Zone 19N, NAD83-HARN)

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
1-meter resolution image mosaic representing sidescan sonar data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field activity 2016-030-FA offshore Sandwich Beach, MA in June 2016 (24-bit GeoTIFF, UTM Zone 19N, NAD83-HARN)
Abstract:
The objectives of the survey were to provide bathymetric and sidescan sonar data for sediment transport studies and coastal change model development for ongoing studies of nearshore coastal dynamics along Sandwich Town Neck Beach, MA. Data collection equipment used for this investigation are mounted on an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) uniquely adapted from a commercially sold gas-powered kayak and termed the "jetyak". The jetyak design is the result of a collaborative effort between USGS and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) scientists.
Supplemental_Information:
For more information about the WHCMSC Field Activity, see https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2016-030-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2018, 1-meter resolution image mosaic representing sidescan sonar data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field activity 2016-030-FA offshore Sandwich Beach, MA in June 2016 (24-bit GeoTIFF, UTM Zone 19N, NAD83-HARN): data release DOI:10.5066/P9TJIM2M, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Danforth, W.W., Sherwood, C.R., Martini, M.A., Borden, J., and Brosnahan, S.M., 2018, Sidescan sonar, single beam bathymetry, and navigation collected offshore of Sandwich Beach in 2016, U.S. Geological Field Activity 2016-030-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/P9TJIM2M, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Danforth, W.W. Sherwood, C.R., Martini, M.A., Borden, J., and Brosnahan, S.M., 2018, Sidescan sonar, single beam bathymetry, and navigation collected offshore of Sandwich Beach in 2016, U.S. Geological Field Activity 2016-030-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9TJIM2M.
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.487544
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.471004
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.774016
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.761633
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2016-030-FA/data/backscatter/2016-030-FA_backscatter_browse.jpg (JPEG)
    Gray-scale image of sidescan sonar data collected offshore of Sandwich Beach, MA
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 06-Jun-2016
    Ending_Date: 08-Jun-2016
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition during 20160606 - 20160608
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 1352 x 1352 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19N
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_North_American_1983_HARN.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no text attributes associated with a binary GeoTIFF image. Data values within the GeoTIFF file are represented separately in 3 equal 8-bit bands (24-bit image) containing acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range, and range in value from 0,0,0, to 254,254,254. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). The background color is set to 255,255,255 and can be turned off without removing data values.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    U.S. Geological Survey for the meaning of the pixel values. For further details regarding the GeoTIFF file structure and headers, see: https://www.loc.gov/preservation/digital/formats/fdd/fdd000279.shtml#specs.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    William W. Danforth
    U. S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2274 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bdanforth@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This image represents approximately 26 kilometers of sidescan sonar data collected in 2016. These data were collected by the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center during USGS field activity 2016-030-FA using a Humminbird 898c HD SI Combo GPS/Fish Finder remote sensing instrument (www.humminbird.com) that is rigidly mounted on the hull of the jetyak. These data can be used in conjunction with other geophysical and sample data to identify sea-floor morphology and sediment texture.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Raw Sidescan Sonar Data (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Raw sidescan sonar data in Humminbird .son/.dat format..

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    These data were collected using the USGS jetyak, a commercially sold gas-powered kayak built in upstate New York, running pre-planned lines perpendicular to the beach with a 20 meter line spacing. The jetyak has a roto-molded polyethylene hull and an air-cooled 7-horsepower four-stroke engine. It is propelled and steered by means of a water-drive. The boat will run for 8 to 10 hours on 3 gallons of gas at survey speeds of 2 to 6 knots. Modifications were made by USGS and WHOI scientists to make the jetyak autonomous. The two original manual controls (throttle and steering) are replaced by servos: automatic devices that use error-sensing feedback to correct performance, such as those employed in remote-control airplanes and satellite-tracking antennas. The servos are run by an onboard computer developed for aerial drones. This computer, a modified Arduino, includes Ardupilot software and a special circuit board that provides interfaces for the controls, radio, and Global Positioning System receiver (GPS). The only other modification is installation of a centrifugal clutch, which allows the engine to idle without moving the jetyak.
    Onboard the Jetyak is a hull mounted Humminbird 898c HD SI Combo GPS Fish Finder that is used for GPS navigation and location in addition to collection of sidescan sonar data at 455 kHz, and depth (bathymetric) data at 83 and 200 kHz. Files are saved in a proprietary Humminbird .SON/.DAT paired data format, contact www.humminbird.com for details. A separate navigation GPS receiver mounted onboard the Jetyak is a Spectra Precision SP80 GNSS receiver (http://www.spectraprecision.com/eng/sp80.html#.WyQWYDNKjUI). This receiver is mounted on top of a pole 1.025 meters in length which is attached to the hull of the jetyak. This receiver is called the "rover", and saves information that will later be used in conjunction with base station established on the beach to calculate kinematic solutions for both the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the rover. The sidescan sonar, navigation, and bathymetry data were processed using Chesapeake Technology 64-bit SonarWiz6 version 6.05.0025 (www.chesapeaketech.com) and ArcGIS version 10.5 (www.esri.com).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2018 (process 1 of 2)
    Sidescan sonar data processing and mosaic steps using SonarWiz6:
    1. Create a project (UTM-WGS84, Zone 19N, central meridian -69.0) and use all default import parameters for the Humminbird .DAT format in SonarWiz6 (use sensor heading, import 1024 samples per channel, channels 1 and 2).
    2. Once the .DAT file is imported, select the file (right click) and set the processing options (settings): Enable EGN (empirical gain normalization using all sidescan sonar data pixel values and range from transducer), intensity 75; enable Nadir Filter, nadir angle 40; project sonar data using sensor heading checkbox selected.
    3. After the processing settings are applied, select the sonar file (right click) and set the display range for port and stbd to 15 meters.
    4. Then single click on the sonar file and set the color histogram datatype to sidescan (ch. 1 and 2), palette to gray, inverted, and manually stretched values of 79-149.
    5. After processing completes, use the Export menu to save individual geo-images. In the resulting popup dialog, set the output file type to GeoTIFF, color resolution 24-bit, image resolution 1 meter/pixel, background color to white (255,255,255), checkbox selected for disable compression. The resulting GeoTIFF image is spatially mapped in the UTM 19N WGS84 projection.
    6. Reproject the GeoTIFF created in step 5 from UTM zone 19N WGS84 to UTM zone 19N NAD83-HARN using the ArcCatalog Project Raster utility. The output horizontal datum used is NAD_1983_HARN_UTM_Zone_19N. Person who carried out this activity:
    William W. Danforth
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2274 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bdanforth@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 2 of 2)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigation were acquired using a Humminbird 898c HD SI Combo Global Positioning System (GPS) aided by the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), which is spatially accurate within 2 meters, horizontally.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All collected survey line data were incorporated into the final sidescan sonar image.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This file represents sidescan sonar data collected by the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center during USGS field activity 2016-030-FA using a Humminbird 898c HD SI Combo GPS/Fish Finder remote sensing instrument mounted on the USGS Jetyak.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Not to be used for navigation. Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    William W. Danforth
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2274 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bdanforth@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Windows 10 zip file (2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.zip) containing a 24-bit GeoTIFF image of sidescan sonar data (2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.tif), FGDC CSDGM metadata files (2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.xml, 2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.html, 2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.txt), and the browse graphic 2016-030-FA_backscatter_browse.jpg.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data are available as a 24-bit GeoTIFF image. The GeoTIFF and associated world file are stored in one folder 'backscatter' that has been compressed using native Windows 10 compression software. To utilize these data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image. Free spatial data viewers, ArcGIS Earth and Google Earth Pro, are capable of displaying the data. See: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis-earth, or https://www.google.com/earth/desktop/. The zip file also contains associated metadata.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
William W. Danforth
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
USA

508-548-8700 x2274 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
bdanforth@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/field_activities/2016_030_fa/2016-030-FA_backscatter_1m.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:16 2021