Manheim and Lane-Bostwick (1989) provide analytical results gathered from published and unpublished sources in a series of 20 tables in Appendix C:
Table 1 - Composition of crusts analyzed by the USGS Reston analytical laboratories Table 2 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by USGS Woods Hole analytical laboratories Table 3 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Bureau of Mines Avondale analytical laboratories Table 4 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Technical University, Clausthal-Zellerfield (TUCLZ) and the German Geological Survey Table 5 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the SP Lee cruises L5-83HW and L5-84CP using Portaspec XRF Table 5a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the R/V Sonne cruises Midpac2a and Midpac2b using XRF Table 6 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Japanese (Usui, unpublished data) Table 7 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Analytical Services Company (cruise KK84) Table 8 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - major and minor analyses; Table 8a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - rare earth elements Table 9 - Composition of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank - major and minor analyses Table 10 - Trace analyses of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank Table 11 - Composition of Manganese oxide as reported by the NGDC - major and minor analyses Table 12 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Glasby (written communication), Dillard and Crowther (1984) and Exon (1982) Table 13 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Volkov and others (1976) and Dymond and others (1984) Table 14 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Goddard and others (1987) Table 15 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crust layers as reported in Goddard and others (1987) Table 16 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) Table 17 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) Table 18 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in OF87-281 (Hein and others, 1987).Citation list:
Aplin, A.C., 1983, The geochemistry and environment of deposition of some ferromanganese oxide deposits from the south equatorial Pacific: D.Sc. dissertation, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London, 347 p.
DeCarlo, E.H., McMurtry, G.M., and Kim, K.H., 1987, Geochemistry of ferromanganese crusts from the Hawaiian Archipelago Exclusive Economic Zone - Northern survey areas; Deep-Sea Research, v. 34, p. 441-467.
Dillard, J.D., Crowther, D.L., 1984, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of ferromanganese nodules: Chemical speciation for selected transition metals: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, no. 5, p. 1565-1569.
Dymond, J., Lyle, M., Finney, B., Piper, D.Z., Murphy, K., Conard, R., and Pisia, N., 1984, Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R - Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, p. 931-949.
Exon, N.F., 1982, Offshore sediments, phosphorite and manganese nodules in the Samoan region, southwest pacific: Southwest Pacific Marine Geological Notes, v. 2, no. 7, p. 103-120.
Goddard, D.A., Thompson, G., Jones, E.J.W., and Okada, H., 1987, The chemistry and mineralogy of ferromanganese encrustations on rocks from the Sierra Leone Rise, Equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge and New England Seamount Chain: Marine Geology, v. 77, p. 87-98.
Hein, J.R., Fleishman, C.L., Morgenson, L.A., Bloomer, S.H., and Stern, R.J., 1987, Submarine ferromanganese deposits from the Mariana and Volcano volcanic arcs, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-281, 9 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr87281.
Manheim, F.T., Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: A review and comprehensive database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0020/report.pdf
Volkov, I.I., Fomina, L.S., and Yagadinskaya, T.A., 1976, Chemical composition of iron-manganese concretions of the Pacific Ocean on the transect from Wake Atoll to the Mexican coast (in Russian), in Volkov, I.I. (ed.), Biokhimiya Diageneza Osadkov Okeana, Nauka, Moscow, p. 186-204.
sequence_n: Sequence number. Six digit number where the first 3 digits are based on the "Marsden Square" system and the last 3 digits are an assigned serial number for each sample within that 10-degree grid segment. This is a numeric field represented as a text field to maintain leading zeros.
latitude: Latitude of sample location in decimal degrees.
longitude: Longitude of sample location in decimal degrees.
depth: Depth of sample location measured in meters.
lab_no: Sample number assigned by the laboratory performing the analysis, enabling recheck of data by analysts.
Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, MnO2) measured in weight percent. The oxides represented in each table varies.
Elements (such as As, Ba, Cd) measured in parts per million (ppm). The elements represented in each table varies. Of note: As is a reserved term in ArcGIS, so the attribute name was modified from the original heading to As_ppm.
Sum: Sum of the weight percent oxides excluding the H2Ominus values because the data are presented on a hygroscopic moisture-free basis. The summation also does not include Cl and SO4 values (mainly due to dried sea water in pore fluid) nor trace metals. Occurs in Table 1.
gamma: The correction factor that would be needed to bring the observed sum to the theoretical sum of 98.6 as explained on pages 63-64 in the paper version of the OFR. Occurs in Table 1.
sampled: The sample used for analysis. Blanks exist, but unsure what that means.
interval: The sampled interval in millimeters. Refers to the portion of the crust taken for analysis. Where no description is given, one can generally assume that a bulk sample was used. Many, especially older Scripps Institution Node Data Bank (SNDB) materials may represent indeterminate samplings of crusts, and even for newer material, surfaces of crusts may be ground off by unprotected chain dredge bags during recovery.
thickness: Refers to the thickness in millimeters of the sample or subsample. Occurs in Table 8.
LOI500C: Weight percent loss on ignition at 500 degrees Celsius. Occurs in Table 2.
LOI1000C: Weight percent loss on ignition at 1000 degrees Celsius. Occurs in Table 2.
nucleus: Refers to the nucleus of the sample analyzed. Occurs in Table 9.
substrate: Refers to the substrate of the sample, and can be combined with substrate2 for a full description. Occurs in Table 14.
substrate2: Modifier for the substrate - combined with substrate give a full description of the sample substrate. Occurs in Table 14.
posfrmsurf: The position from the surface of the sample measured in mm. Occurs in Table 15.
reference: This reference number refers to the cross-reference list provided in Chapter XIII of OFR 89-020. Occurs in Tables 9 and 10.
LOI: Weight percent loss on ignition. Occurs in Table 16.
MMBIB: Marine Minerals Bibliography number, a unique field that incorporates author and date of publication of reference where data were obtained. Occurs in Table 11.
analysis_n: Assumed this refers to the analysis number in the event that more than one analysis was run. Occurs in Table 11 and could not find a good explanation. Based on other data at NGDC, the 0 probably reflects "unknown".
sampletype: Coded value for sample type. Occurs in Table 11 but could not find the explanation for the numeric values in the OFR. Searching NGDC yielded the following site: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/mmdb.html. Within the documentation: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/mmdb/mmdbdoc.html the following sample type definitions were found - which we have assumed pertains to this table.
Sample Type Code: (SIO with additions, use '00' for unknown) 00 = unknown 01 = Mn nodule or nodules 02 = Mn nodule in sediment 03 = micronodules 04 = micronodules in sediment 05 = nodules and micronodules 06 = Mn-encrusted sediment 07 = Mn-coated rock 08 = Mn crust or pavement 09 = Mn-coated organic material 10 = several crusts 19 = metalliferous hydrothermal sediment 20 = stratiform deposit For this table, leading zeros were not included in the original text files.unknown1: A column of values present in Table 12 that does not appear in the OFR.
blank: A column of blank values present in Table 15 that does not appear in the OFR.
The following attributes were added to account for special notations in the OFR that did not translate to the digital data.
contam: In the printed table are symbols next to the sequence number (sequence_n) that represent possible contamination by underlying substrate. A value in this field indicates possible contamination and indicates the substrate of the contamination. Occurs in Table 1.
modifier: Accounts for the "<" symbol preceding some of the numeric values in the paper version of the tables. The symbol, and the attributes that they were applied to are listed in this attribute for the samples in which they occur. Occurs in Tables 1, 5, 5a, 12, 18.
analysis: Reflects those samples that had an asterisk in the paper table indicating analysis done with DC Plasma Spectrometry for comparative studies. Occurs in Table 2.
uncertain: Chemical values followed by an asterisk were considered to be highly questionable. This attribute lists the elements for each sample that contained an asterisk. Occurs in Table 10.
See Process Step 1 for information regarding each specific table.
U.S. Geological Survey. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
The purpose of this dataset is to release the information contained in Tables 1-18 of Appendix C from USGS Open-File Report 89-020 in a GIS compatible format. This publication contains the analysis information of the chemical composition of ferromanaganese crusts in the world oceans.
The files on disk that are prefixed with file??.F represent the chemical data as reported in Appendix C of OF89-020. Data is in free format and uses a comma as a field delimiter. Each field in a record represents a line of data in the table and each record represents a column (not counting the first column which in a sense could be viewed as a header record). All data are on a water corrected basis. Latitude and longitude are in decimal degrees where negative values are south and west respectively. Depth is in meters. In the case of a dredge the position data recorded in the chemical tables represent when the dredge first is on the bottom. Note in all tables values in wt% and values in ppm are grouped separately.
FILE01.F - Table 1. Analyses performed by Analytical Labs Washington, DC. Lab# is the number assigned by A-labs. Oxides were calculated by authors based on reported ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) elemental analyses received by A-labs. Sums were calculated by authors as described on page 63. gamma refers to the correction factor that would be needed to bring the observed sum to the theoretical sum of 98.6 as explained on pgs 63-64. 'Sampled interval' is represented by the last two fields in the file. Note that oxides are in wt% and trace elements are in ppm. In the printed table are symbols next to the sequence no (seqno) that represent possible contamination by underlying substrate. These symbols are NOT represented in the computer file. You may want to flag them in a dbms. They are as follows: dagger=basalt, double dagger=carbonate and asterisk=high magnesium.
FILE02.F - Table 2. Analyses by our labs in Woods Hole. Done by XRF. For these data, asterisks next to the lab# signifies an analysis done with DC PLASMA SPECTROMETRY for comparative studies. The fields 500oC and 1000oC are weight percent loss on ignition (LOI).
FILE03.F - Table 3. Bureau of Mines labs in Avondale, Md for interlaboratory analyses. Method used was Atomic Absorption (AA).
FILE04.F - Table 4. Bulk sample and micro-sampling by drilling by spectrometric methods.
FILE05.F and FILE5a.F - Table 5 & Table 5a. Shipboard data (XRF Portaspec)
FILE06.F - Table 6. Japanese data (AA after borate fusion)
FILE07.F - Table 7. Analytical Services, Co.(AA?)- Kana Keoki 84 samples
FILE08.F - Table 8. Aplin PhD thesis - Major elements by AA, rare earths by chemical separation followed by ICP.
FILE09.F - Table 9. SIO database - Changed seqno to incorporate analysis number, therefore 0800024-01 is sequence number = 0800024 and analysis number = 01. Changed codes to text in description of sample type, portion sampled and nucleus. Note the fields, sample type and sample portion as recorded in the datafile each have two fields associated with it. They need to be concatenated into one field. Fields 30 and 31 = sample type and fields 32 and 33 = portion sampled.
FILE10.F - Table 10. SIO database - trace elements. Chemical values followed by an asterisk are considered to be highly questionable.
FILE11.F - Table 11. NGDC data Corresponding sample data are in file NGDC.txt.
FILE12.F - FILE18.F These tables contain chemical analyses from references as stated in the captions. Note that in table 13, Ba should be in ppm. Person who carried out this activity:
Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
|Data format:||WinZip (version 14.0) file contains the shapefiles of each table, the comma-delimited text file exported from each shapefile, the FGDC CSDGM metadata, and the readme.txt file distributed with the original ASCII text files at NGDC. in format Shapefile (version ArcGIS 9.3.1) Size: 0.563|
|Data format:||WinZip (version 14.0) file contains the shapefiles of each table, the comma-delimited text file exported from each shapefile, the FGDC CSDGM metadata, and the readme.txt file distributed with the original ASCII text files at NGDC in format CSV (version XTools Pro v. 7.1) Size: 0.563|