Point Shapefiles of Locations and Results of Ocean Bottom Ferromanganese Crusts Chemical Analyses Published in Appendix C of USGS Open-File Report 89-020

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What does this data set describe?

Title:
Point Shapefiles of Locations and Results of Ocean Bottom Ferromanganese Crusts Chemical Analyses Published in Appendix C of USGS Open-File Report 89-020
Abstract:
The chemical compositions and natural distribution of ferromanganese crusts have been a topic of interest to scientific research, as well as to industrial and military applications. These crusts form largely on hard substrates in marine environments largely free from heavy amounts of sedimentation. They are distinct from ferromanganese nodules that form in abyssal geographic locations, by their chemical composition, mineralogy, and source of metals. A database containing analytical data pertaining to globally distributed crust samples was assembled from published and unpublished sources. These sources come from academic and government research laboratories, with contributions from U.S. and international sources.

Manheim and Lane-Bostwick (1989) provide analytical results gathered from published and unpublished sources in a series of 20 tables in Appendix C:
Table 1 - Composition of crusts analyzed by the USGS Reston analytical laboratories 
Table 2 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by USGS Woods Hole analytical laboratories 
Table 3 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Bureau of Mines Avondale analytical laboratories 
Table 4 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Technical University, Clausthal-Zellerfield (TUCLZ) and the German Geological Survey 
Table 5 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the SP Lee cruises L5-83HW and L5-84CP using Portaspec XRF 
Table 5a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the R/V Sonne cruises Midpac2a and Midpac2b using XRF 
Table 6 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Japanese (Usui, unpublished data) 
Table 7 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Analytical Services Company (cruise KK84) 
Table 8 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - major and minor analyses; Table 8a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - rare earth elements 
Table 9 - Composition of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank - major and minor analyses 
Table 10 - Trace analyses of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank 
Table 11 - Composition of Manganese oxide as reported by the NGDC - major and minor analyses 
Table 12 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Glasby (written communication), Dillard and Crowther (1984) and Exon (1982) 
Table 13 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Volkov and others (1976) and Dymond and others (1984) 
Table 14 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Goddard and others (1987) 
Table 15 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crust layers as reported in Goddard and others (1987) 
Table 16 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) 
Table 17 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) 
Table 18 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in OF87-281 (Hein and others, 1987).

Citation list:

Aplin, A.C., 1983, The geochemistry and environment of deposition of some ferromanganese oxide deposits from the south equatorial Pacific: D.Sc. dissertation, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London, 347 p.

DeCarlo, E.H., McMurtry, G.M., and Kim, K.H., 1987, Geochemistry of ferromanganese crusts from the Hawaiian Archipelago Exclusive Economic Zone - Northern survey areas; Deep-Sea Research, v. 34, p. 441-467.

Dillard, J.D., Crowther, D.L., 1984, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of ferromanganese nodules: Chemical speciation for selected transition metals: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, no. 5, p. 1565-1569.

Dymond, J., Lyle, M., Finney, B., Piper, D.Z., Murphy, K., Conard, R., and Pisia, N., 1984, Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R - Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, p. 931-949.

Exon, N.F., 1982, Offshore sediments, phosphorite and manganese nodules in the Samoan region, southwest pacific: Southwest Pacific Marine Geological Notes, v. 2, no. 7, p. 103-120.

Goddard, D.A., Thompson, G., Jones, E.J.W., and Okada, H., 1987, The chemistry and mineralogy of ferromanganese encrustations on rocks from the Sierra Leone Rise, Equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge and New England Seamount Chain: Marine Geology, v. 77, p. 87-98.

Hein, J.R., Fleishman, C.L., Morgenson, L.A., Bloomer, S.H., and Stern, R.J., 1987, Submarine ferromanganese deposits from the Mariana and Volcano volcanic arcs, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-281, 9 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr87281.

Manheim, F.T., Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: A review and comprehensive database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0020/report.pdf

Volkov, I.I., Fomina, L.S., and Yagadinskaya, T.A., 1976, Chemical composition of iron-manganese concretions of the Pacific Ocean on the transect from Wake Atoll to the Mexican coast (in Russian), in Volkov, I.I. (ed.), Biokhimiya Diageneza Osadkov Okeana, Nauka, Moscow, p. 186-204.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, Point Shapefiles of Locations and Results of Ocean Bottom Ferromanganese Crusts Chemical Analyses Published in Appendix C of USGS Open-File Report 89-020: Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This is the digital representation of data originally published in tables in a paper publication - U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020. Subsequently, the digital files associated with those tables were uploaded to National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Manheim, F.T., and Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the Word Ocean: A Review and Comprehensive Database: Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -179.8
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 179.883000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 56.17
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -65.62
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 2014
    Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal Degrees. The horizontal datum used is D North American 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is GRS 1980.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257222101.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The definitions of the attributes are surmised based on the Open-File Report publication. Not all of the tables have the same analyses. However, the tables are consistent enough that the following information should cover the bulk of the information in the tables, with details and additional information available from the Open-File Report. In the case of numeric attributes, no data or blank values were replaced by -9999. If an attribute occurs in only a couple of Tables, that is noted.
    
    
    sequence_n: Sequence number. Six digit number where the first 3 digits are based on the "Marsden Square" system and the last 3 digits are an assigned serial number for each sample within that 10-degree grid segment. This is a numeric field represented as a text field to maintain leading zeros.
    
    
    latitude: Latitude of sample location in decimal degrees.
    
    
    longitude: Longitude of sample location in decimal degrees.
    
    
    depth: Depth of sample location measured in meters.
    
    
    lab_no: Sample number assigned by the laboratory performing the analysis, enabling recheck of data by analysts.
    
    
    Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, MnO2) measured in weight percent. The oxides represented in each table varies.
    
    
    Elements (such as As, Ba, Cd) measured in parts per million (ppm). The elements represented in each table varies. Of note: As is a reserved term in ArcGIS, so the attribute name was modified from the original heading to As_ppm.
    
    
    Sum: Sum of the weight percent oxides excluding the H2Ominus values because the data are presented on a hygroscopic moisture-free basis. The summation also does not include Cl and SO4 values (mainly due to dried sea water in pore fluid) nor trace metals. Occurs in Table 1.
    
    
    gamma: The correction factor that would be needed to bring the observed sum to the theoretical sum of 98.6 as explained on pages 63-64 in the paper version of the OFR. Occurs in Table 1.
    
    
    sampled: The sample used for analysis. Blanks exist, but unsure what that means.
    
    
    interval: The sampled interval in millimeters. Refers to the portion of the crust taken for analysis. Where no description is given, one can generally assume that a bulk sample was used. Many, especially older Scripps Institution Node Data Bank (SNDB) materials may represent indeterminate samplings of crusts, and even for newer material, surfaces of crusts may be ground off by unprotected chain dredge bags during recovery.
    
    
    thickness: Refers to the thickness in millimeters of the sample or subsample. Occurs in Table 8.
    
    
    LOI500C: Weight percent loss on ignition at 500 degrees Celsius. Occurs in Table 2.
    
    
    LOI1000C: Weight percent loss on ignition at 1000 degrees Celsius. Occurs in Table 2.
    
    
    nucleus: Refers to the nucleus of the sample analyzed. Occurs in Table 9.
    
    
    substrate: Refers to the substrate of the sample, and can be combined with substrate2 for a full description. Occurs in Table 14.
    
    
    substrate2: Modifier for the substrate - combined with substrate give a full description of the sample substrate. Occurs in Table 14.
    
    
    posfrmsurf: The position from the surface of the sample measured in mm. Occurs in Table 15.
    
    
    reference: This reference number refers to the cross-reference list provided in Chapter XIII of OFR 89-020. Occurs in Tables 9 and 10.
    
    
    LOI: Weight percent loss on ignition. Occurs in Table 16.
    
    
    MMBIB: Marine Minerals Bibliography number, a unique field that incorporates author and date of publication of reference where data were obtained. Occurs in Table 11.
    
    
    analysis_n: Assumed this refers to the analysis number in the event that more than one analysis was run. Occurs in Table 11 and could not find a good explanation. Based on other data at NGDC, the 0 probably reflects "unknown".
    
    
    sampletype: Coded value for sample type. Occurs in Table 11 but could not find the explanation for the numeric values in the OFR. Searching NGDC yielded the following site: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/mmdb.html. Within the documentation: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/mmdb/mmdbdoc.html the following sample type definitions were found - which we have assumed pertains to this table.
    
    Sample Type Code:   (SIO with additions, use '00' for unknown)
    00 = unknown                                                                    
    01 = Mn nodule or nodules                                                       
    02 = Mn nodule in sediment                                                      
    03 = micronodules                                                               
    04 = micronodules in sediment                                                   
    05 = nodules and micronodules                                                   
    06 = Mn-encrusted sediment                                                      
    07 = Mn-coated rock                                                             
    08 = Mn crust or pavement                                                       
    09 = Mn-coated organic material                                                 
    10 = several crusts                                                             
    19 = metalliferous hydrothermal sediment                                        
    20 = stratiform deposit
    For this table, leading zeros were not included in the original text files. 
    
    
    unknown1: A column of values present in Table 12 that does not appear in the OFR.
    
    
    blank: A column of blank values present in Table 15 that does not appear in the OFR.
    
    
    The following attributes were added to account for special notations in the OFR that did not translate to the digital data.
    
    
    contam: In the printed table are symbols next to the sequence number (sequence_n) that represent possible contamination by underlying substrate. A value in this field indicates possible contamination and indicates the substrate of the contamination. Occurs in Table 1.
    
    
    modifier: Accounts for the "<" symbol preceding some of the numeric values in the paper version of the tables. The symbol, and the attributes that they were applied to are listed in this attribute for the samples in which they occur. Occurs in Tables 1, 5, 5a, 12, 18.
    
    
    analysis: Reflects those samples that had an asterisk in the paper table indicating analysis done with DC Plasma Spectrometry for comparative studies. Occurs in Table 2.
    
    
    uncertain: Chemical values followed by an asterisk were considered to be highly questionable. This attribute lists the elements for each sample that contained an asterisk. Occurs in Table 10.
    
    
    See Process Step 1 for information regarding each specific table.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    Manheim, F.T., Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: A review and comprehensive database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    U.S. Geological Survey. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this dataset is to release the information contained in Tables 1-18 of Appendix C from USGS Open-File Report 89-020 in a GIS compatible format. This publication contains the analysis information of the chemical composition of ferromanaganese crusts in the world oceans.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    FeMn Manheim (source 1 of 2)
    National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 1991, U.S. Geological Survey Ferromanganese Crust Data Set: NGDC Data Set 1019, National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This citation refers to the location where the digital data were acquired.
    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    The digital files corresponding to tables 1-18 in U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020 were uploaded to National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) - assuming the upload was around 1991 according to the README.TXT file. In turn, the data were downloaded from that site (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geology/usgscrust.html) on August 6, 2014. The following information regarding the data is extracted from the README.TXT file.
    
    
    The files on disk that are prefixed with file??.F represent the chemical data as reported in Appendix C of OF89-020. Data is in free format and uses a comma as a field delimiter. Each field in a record represents a line of data in the table and each record represents a column (not counting the first column which in a sense could be viewed as a header record). All data are on a water corrected basis. Latitude and longitude are in decimal degrees where negative values are south and west respectively. Depth is in meters. In the case of a dredge the position data recorded in the chemical tables represent when the dredge first is on the bottom. Note in all tables values in wt% and values in ppm are grouped separately.
    FeMnOFR (source 2 of 2)
    Manheim, F.T., and Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical Composition of Ferromanganese Crusts in the World Ocean: A Review and Conmprehensive Database: Open-File Report 89-020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The original publication containing the data in tabular format.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    The Open-File Report provided the details necessary to complete the metadata and verify the data headers.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 06-Aug-2014 (process 1 of 8)
    The digital ASCII files for tables 1-18 were downloaded from NGDC. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian J. Buczkowski
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Core Curator and Data Management Specialist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-458-8700 x2361 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
    Date: Aug-2014 (process 2 of 8)
    The downloaded digital ASCII files for tables 1-18 were modified by adding a header line. The README.TXT file, that accompanied the tables when downloaded, was used as a guide to add the header line to each of the individual data files. Table 13 had to be split into three separate files to accommodate the inconsistencies in the paper version of the table. The ASCII file listed elements measured in order, and they weren't necessarily the same for each sequence number. The README file gave the following detailed information regarding the individual files:
    
    
    FILE01.F - Table 1. Analyses performed by Analytical Labs Washington, DC. Lab# is the number assigned by A-labs. Oxides were calculated by authors based on reported ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) elemental analyses received by A-labs. Sums were calculated by authors as described on page 63. gamma refers to the correction factor that would be needed to bring the observed sum to the theoretical sum of 98.6 as explained on pgs 63-64. 'Sampled interval' is represented by the last two fields in the file. Note that oxides are in wt% and trace elements are in ppm. In the printed table are symbols next to the sequence no (seqno) that represent possible contamination by underlying substrate. These symbols are NOT represented in the computer file. You may want to flag them in a dbms. They are as follows: dagger=basalt, double dagger=carbonate and asterisk=high magnesium.
    
    
    FILE02.F - Table 2. Analyses by our labs in Woods Hole. Done by XRF. For these data, asterisks next to the lab# signifies an analysis done with DC PLASMA SPECTROMETRY for comparative studies. The fields 500oC and 1000oC are weight percent loss on ignition (LOI).
    
    
    FILE03.F - Table 3. Bureau of Mines labs in Avondale, Md for interlaboratory analyses. Method used was Atomic Absorption (AA).
    
    
    FILE04.F - Table 4. Bulk sample and micro-sampling by drilling by spectrometric methods.
    
    
    FILE05.F and FILE5a.F - Table 5 & Table 5a. Shipboard data (XRF Portaspec)
    
    
    FILE06.F - Table 6. Japanese data (AA after borate fusion)
    
    
    FILE07.F - Table 7. Analytical Services, Co.(AA?)- Kana Keoki 84 samples
    
    
    FILE08.F - Table 8. Aplin PhD thesis - Major elements by AA, rare earths by chemical separation followed by ICP.
    
    
    FILE09.F - Table 9. SIO database - Changed seqno to incorporate analysis number, therefore 0800024-01 is sequence number = 0800024 and analysis number = 01. Changed codes to text in description of sample type, portion sampled and nucleus. Note the fields, sample type and sample portion as recorded in the datafile each have two fields associated with it. They need to be concatenated into one field. Fields 30 and 31 = sample type and fields 32 and 33 = portion sampled.
    
    
    FILE10.F - Table 10. SIO database - trace elements. Chemical values followed by an asterisk are considered to be highly questionable.
    
    
    FILE11.F - Table 11. NGDC data Corresponding sample data are in file NGDC.txt.
    
    
    FILE12.F - FILE18.F These tables contain chemical analyses from references as stated in the captions. Note that in table 13, Ba should be in ppm. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 07-Aug-2014 (process 3 of 8)
    The VB 2010 program SchemaGen (a simple VS 2010 tool written by VeeAnn Cross at the USGS in Woods Hole) was used to generate the appropriate field definition information for the schema.ini file for each table. This enables the hard coding of an attribute type when the file is brought into ArcGIS. For instance, the Sequence number in the tables often had leading zeros. Because ArcGIS would have recognized this field as numeric, those leading zeros would have been lost. By assigning that field to be a text attribute, those leading zeros were maintained. Creating an appropriate schema.ini file to define the attributes aids in the prevention of data being lost because ArcGIS interprets the field as the wrong attribute type. This process step and all subsequent process steps were performed by the same person - VeeAnn A. Cross. Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Aug-2014 (process 4 of 8)
    The comma-delimited text files for each table were then added to ArcMap 9.3.1 as an event theme and converted to shapefiles. Table 1 had the "contam" attribute added to account for the special symbols attached to various sequence #'s that didn't translate to the digital version of the data. This is discussed in the first process step. The "modifier" attribute was added to the shapefiles that needed it to account for the "<" symbol preceding some of the numeric values in the paper version of the tables. In the original text file, any numeric value represented in the paper version of the table with a "<" symbol was translated to a negative value. In order to maintain the numeric value of the individual measurements, an attribute was added called "modifier". This column lists the attributes where the measurement value was preceded by a "<" in the paper version, or a negative sign in the digital version. Then the corresponding attributes had the negative sign removed. The tables that had this attribute added are Table 1, Table 5, Table 5a, Table 12, and Table 18. Table 2 had the attribute "analysis" added to reflect those samples that had an asterisk in the paper table indicating analysis done with DC Plasma Spectrometry for comparative studies. Table 10 had the attribute "uncertain" added to reflect those elements that had an asterisk next to the analysis indicating those values were highly questionable. Data sources used in this process:
    • file*.f
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • table*_ofr89-020.shp
    Date: Sep-2014 (process 5 of 8)
    Both the tables and the comma-delimited text files had some blanks. Shapefiles don't allow blanks in numeric fields, those blanks are automatically converted to zeros. I would verify with both the paper tables and the original text files that no zeros occurred, and then replace all zeros with -9999 in the shapefile. In the instance of zeros actually occurring in the data files, those zeros were maintained as zeros.
    Date: 09-Sep-2014 (process 6 of 8)
    The ASCII file marked the end of a record with "$". That attribute was deleted from the shapefile.
    Date: 12-Sep-2014 (process 7 of 8)
    Using XTools Pro (version 7.1.0) in ArcMap 9.3.1 - export the attribute table to a comma-delimited text file using Table Operations - Export Table to Text. Exclude the attribute FID from the export. Export each shapefile to a CSV file with the same prefix name. For instance, table1_ofr89-020.shp is exported to table1_ofr89-020.csv. Data sources used in this process:
    • table*_ofr89-020.shp
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • table*_ofr89-020.csv
    Date: 17-Nov-2021 (process 8 of 8)
    Added USGS Thesaurus keywords. Add the DOI link in the identification section and as a network resource name. Also added DOI links in the cross-references and source contribution when possible. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes (20210412) The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Tweaked a thesaurus name (20211117). Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Lane, C.M., Manheim, F.T., Hathaway, J.C., and Ling, T.H., 1986, Station Maps of the World Ocean-Ferromanganese-Crust Data Base: Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 1869, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The digital files contain all the original data from the files downloaded from NGDC, with some formatting changes noted in the process steps below. There are instances where the digital files differ from the paper version of the data, but the digital files were not edited to match the paper version. The accuracy of the individual measurements is a function of the laboratory in which the measurements were made. Please refer to U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020 for details of the analyses. Although not corrected, some anomalies were noted. Tables 8 and 8a both have a sample with Sequence Number 016008, but the latitude value in Table 8 is negative. This is assumed to be an error because Table 8 and a previously published map have the point at the positive latitude. Additionally, there are samples with a depth of 0, where other samples with the same latitude/longitude don't have zero for the depth value. Table 12 has an extra column of values between Ca and K that does not appear in the OFR. Table 15 had an extra blank column between subsamp_no and posfrmsurf.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The overall accuracy of the data is unknown. Given the time frame of the data collection, positional accuracy is assumed to be around 1 kilometer.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No information is recorded regarding how the depths were measured that is present in the data files. Therefore no accuracy value can be assumed.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    All the records from the obtained digital files pertaining to Tables 1 to 18 of Open-File Report 89-020 are included.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Some elements of the data published in the paper reports did not translate well to the digital files. These usually represented notes or special characters in the table that were defined outside the table. These elements are describe in process step 1 and are different for each table (or the table might not need any special handling). How these anomalies were handled is explained in process step 3.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: Brian J. Buczkowski
    Marine Geologist
    Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2361 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    bbuczkowski@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? tables1-18_ofr89-020.zip. This zip file contains the individual shapefiles for tables 1-18, a CSV file corresponding to each shapefile, a single FGDC CSDGM metadata file describing the shapefiles (in 4 formats), and a readme.txt file.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 17-Nov-2021
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
Marine Geologist
Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Woods Hole, MA

508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
vatnipp@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr1989-0020/tables1-18_ofr89-020_metadata.faq.html>
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