JPEG formatted images of EdgeTech SB-512i chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected in Buzzards Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2009, 2010, and 2011.

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
JPEG formatted images of EdgeTech SB-512i chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected in Buzzards Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2009, 2010, and 2011.
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of seafloor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 5 to 30 meters (m) deep. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/). The data collected in the study area in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, include high-resolution geophysics (bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection) and ground validation (sediment samples, video tracklines, and bottom photographs). The geophysical data are released in USGS Open-File Report 2012-1002, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1002/). The sampling data have not been prepared for publication yet. The geophysical data were collected during four separate surveys conducted between 2004 and 2011 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey H11319 (in 2004; bathymetry only) and USGS surveys 2009-002-FA, 2010-004-FA, and 2011-004-FA)) and cover 410 square kilometers of the inner continental shelf. More information about the individual USGS surveys conducted as part of the Buzzards Bay project can be found on WHCS Field Activity Web pages: 2009-002-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2009-002-FA 2010-004-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2010-004-FA 2011-004-FA: http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2011-004-FA Information about the NOAA survey can be found at: H11319: http://surveys.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/NOS/coast/H10001-H12000/H11319/DR/
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2013, JPEG formatted images of EdgeTech SB-512i chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected in Buzzards Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey offshore of Massachusetts in 2009, 2010, and 2011.: Open-File Report 2012-1002, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., Foster, David S., Baldwin, Wayne E., and Schwab, William C., 2013, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts.: Open-File Report 2012-1002, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.122278
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.649092
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.669965
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.370294
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1002/GIS/browse_jpg/big/BB_SeismicReflectionProfiles.jpg (JPEG)
    JPEG image of a chirp seismic-reflection profile
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 28-May-2009
    Ending_Date: 14-May-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition of individual surveys on the following dates: 20090528-20090618; 20100515-20100520; 20110513-20110514
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions, type pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

JPEG images of each seismic profile were generated in order to incorporate images of the seismic profiles into Geographic Information System (GIS) projects and data archives utilizing HTML. The JPEG images represent approximately 4500 km of EdgeTech SB-512i chirp seismic-reflection profiles collected within Buzzards Bay. Each profile image is hotlinked to its corresponding trackline navigation contained within the Esri polyline shapefile 'BB_SeismicTrackline.shp'. Even 500 shot index markers along the top of the JPEG images correlate to the positions of 500 shot intervals within the Esri point shapefile 'BB_SeismicShot_500.shp'.The trackline and shotpoint shapefiles can be found online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1002/html/appendix1.html

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    none (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, raw seismic data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    Seismic-reflection data acquisition 2009-002-FA: Chirp seismic data were collected using an EdgeTech Geo-Star FSSB sub-bottom profiling system and an SB-0512i towfish (0.5-12 kHz), which was mounted on a catamaran and towed astern of the M/V Megan T. Miller of Port Jefferson, NY. Chesapeake Technologies' SonarWiz (v.4.04.0031) seismic acquisition software was used to control the Geo-Star topside unit, digitally log trace data in the SEG-Y Rev. 1 format (IEEE floating point), and record GPS navigation coordinates to the SEG-Y trace headers (in arc seconds of Latitude and Longitude, multiplied by a scalar of 100). Over Julian days 148 - 158 (Files l1f1 - l154f1) data were acquired using a 0.12-s shot rate, a 20-ms pulse length, and a 0.7 to 12 kHz frequency sweep. File l155f1 was acquired using a 0.12-s shot rate, a 30-ms pulse length, and a 0.5 - 7.2 kHz frequency sweep. Data over Julian days 159 - 169 were acquired using a 0.12-s shot rate, a 20-ms pulse length, and a 2 - 12 kHz frequency sweep. Traces were recorded in depth, assuming a constant sound velocity of 1500 m/s, with trace lengths of approximately 66 m (1250 samples/trace and .000053-s sample interval), 198 m (3744 samples/trace and .000053-s sample interval), and 132 m (2492 samples/trace and .000053-s sample interval) for the respective acquisition configurations. Seismic-reflection data acquisition 2010-004-FA: Chirp seismic data were collected using an EdgeTech Geo-Star FSSB sub-bottom profiling system and an SB-0512i towfish (0.5-12 kHz), which was mounted on a catamaran and towed astern of the M/V Megan T. Miller of Port Jefferson, NY. Chesapeake Technologies' SonarWiz (v.4.04.0111) seismic acquisition software was used to control the Geo-Star topside unit, digitally log trace data in the SEG-Y Rev. 1 format (IEEE floating point), and record GPS navigation coordinates to the SEG-Y trace headers (in arc seconds of Latitude and Longitude, multiplied by a scalar of 100). Data were acquired using a 0.25-s shot rate, a 5-ms pulse length, and a 0.5 to 8 kHz frequency sweep. Recorded trace lengths were approximately 100 ms (2170 samples/trace and .000046-s sample interval). Seismic-reflection data acquisition 2011-004-FA: Chirp seismic data were collected using an EdgeTech Geo-Star FSSB sub-bottom profiling system and an SB-0512i towfish (0.5-12 kHz), which was mounted on a catamaran and towed astern of the M/V Scarlett Isabella of Cape May, NJ. Chesapeake Technologies' SonarWiz (v.5.03.0016) seismic acquisition software was used to control the Geo-Star topside unit, digitally log trace data in the SEG-Y Rev. 1 format (IEEE floating point), and record GPS navigation coordinates to the SEG-Y trace headers (in arc seconds of Latitude and Longitude, multiplied by a scalar of 100). Data were acquired using a 0.25-s shot rate, a 5-ms pulse length, and a 0.5 to 8 kHz frequency sweep. Recorded trace lengths were approximately 200 ms (4340 samples/trace and .000046-s sample interval).
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 1 of 12)
    SIOSEIS (version 2010.2.25) was used to read SEG-Y files, renumber shots starting from one, and write out new SEG-Y files. The original shot numbers, which were assigned by SonarWiz sequentially over the duration of an acquisition session despite SEG-Y file changes, are preserved in the raw SEG-Y data. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 2 of 12)
    SIOSEIS (version 2010.2.25) was used to predict the vertical location of the sea floor for SB-512i seismic traces acquired during 2009-002-FA and 2010-004-FA by identifying the first downtrace instance of an amplitude that exceeded a user defined threshold value. Two-way travel times (meters for 2009-002-FA, and milliseconds for 2010-004-FA) to the sea floor at each trace were recorded to ASCII text files. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 3 of 12)
    SEG-Y trace data from 2009-002-FA and 2010-004-FA were imported into Seisworks 2-D (version: R5000.0.1.1; Landmark Graphics Corp.), a 2-dimensional, digital seismic interpretation software, and seafloor values were imported as Seisworks horizon data. Spurious seafloor values were edited for discrete traces through heads-up digitization of the Seisworks horizon, and corrected values were exported to a new ASCII text files. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 4 of 12)
    AWK was used to convert seafloor values for 2009-002-FA trace data exported from Seisworks 2-D from meters to milliseconds, assuming a constant seismic velocity of 1500 m/s. SIOSEIS (version 2010.2.25) was used to convert the sample interval of 2009-002-FA seismic traces to time (0.000071 seconds). SIOSEIS was used to insert Seisworks corrected seafloor values into the SEG-Y trace headers (2009-002-FA and 2010-004-FA data), minimize the effect of sea surface heave using process 'swell' (2010-004-FA data only), mute water column data using the corrected seafloor values (2009-002-FA and 2010-004-FA data), apply time varying gain to trace data below the seafloor (a(i) = a(i) * (t-wbt) ** alpha, for t >= wbt; alpha=0.5 (2009-002-FA) or 1.5 (2010-004-FA); wbt=seafloor value), apply automatic gain control (AGC) using a 10 ms window and 50 percent of the computed multiplier for each AGC window (2009-002-FA and 2010-004-FA), and write out new muted, gained, AGC corrected SEG-Y files for creation of browse images and digital interpretation. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 5 of 12)
    For 2011-004-FA data, SIOSEIS (version 2010.2.25) was used to apply AGC using a 10 ms window and 50 percent of the computed multiplier for each AGC window, and write out new AGC corrected SEG-Y files for creation of browse images and digital interpretation. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 6 of 12)
    An AWK (no version) script was run that used Seismic Unix (version 4.2) to read all processed SEG-Y files and plot the data as 8-bit gray scale Postscript files using the Seismic Unix 'psimage' algorithm. All images were created with a horizontal scale of 200 traces per inch. The profiles contain 80 milliseconds of Two-Way Travel Time within an 12-inch vertical window, yielding approximately 7 milliseconds per inch. Postscript images were converted to PNG format using ImageMagick (version 6.6.1). The x-axis units of the of the images are shot number while the y-axis is two-way travel time in seconds. Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Date: Oct-2011 (process 7 of 12)
    PNG images were converted to slightly lesser quality but still full-sized JPEG images (using ImageMagick (version 6.4.0) to enable quicker and easier downloading for online users of the Open-File Report. These images (found in the folders by survey ID in GIS\hyperlink_images\) were also resized to 50 percent the original pixel size and 50 percent JPEG quality for the version that is included in the zipped file BB_SeismicProfiles.zip (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1002/html/appendix1.html). Person who carried out this activity:
    Wayne Baldwin
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    wbaldwin@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Full-sized PNG images
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Full-sized JPEG image
    Date: Jan-2013 (process 8 of 12)
    The JPEG images were zipped into five zip files using Winip (version 14.0). The source images were removed in order to fit all the geospatial data on a single DVD-ROM. NOTE: The GIS data should be copied off the DVD and onto a local hard drive to properly use these data. The zip files must be uncompressed and folder structure must conform to the original directory structure for hotlinking to work as intened with the provided ArcGIS project. If unzipped in-place, the zip files should create 3 folders under the "hyperlink_images" directory and populate those folders from with the seismic images from each respective survey. You may have to change the properties of the GIS folder (and its subfolders) from read-only to read-write if you cannot create the new folders or unzip the files. The zip files can be downloaded individually at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1002/html/appendix1.html. Zip files can be uncompressed using built-in functionality with Windows Explorer, or with third-party software such as WinZip, 7zip (freeware), Peazip (freeware) or pkUnzip Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Full-sized JPEG image
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Five zip files containing the full-sized JPEG images
    Date: 08-Dec-2015 (process 9 of 12)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). The distribution format name was modified in an attempt to be more consistent with other metadata files of the same data format. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 10 of 12)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 11 of 12)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 12 of 12)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Stockwell, John, 2011, CWP/SU: Seismic Uni*x: Center for Wave Phenomena - Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.

    Online Links:

    Henkart, Paul, 2011, SIOSEIS: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California - San Diego, LaJolla, CA.

    Online Links:

    Michael W. Norris and Alan K. Faichney, 2002, SEGY Rev.1 Data Exchange Format1: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Field activity 2009-002-FA: The SB-0512i was mounted on a catamaran sled and towed at the sea surface approximately 30 - 40 m astern of the M/V Megan T. Miller. Position data were provided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation receiver mounted on the catamaran, and data were transmitted to the acquisition computer on the vessel via a 2.4 GHz radio link. Technical difficulties during portions of 2009-002-FA caused the GPS system mounted on the catamaran to malfunction, so DGPS navigation was obtained from a receiver mounted on top of the acquisition van (This applies to portions of l1f1, l1f3, l155f1, l158f1, l223f1, l269f1, and all of l156f1 - l157f2, l224f1 - l238f1, l243f1 - l257f1, l270f1 - l372f1). Layback positions, which account for the linear distance between the shipboard DGPS receiver and the towed catamaran vehicle, were calculated trigonometrically during post-processing (see processing step 3). While the vehicle mounted GPS antenna was operational, positional accuracy is assumed to be ± 10 m. While the vehicle mounted GPS was not operational, positional accuracy is assumed to be ± 20 m; increased uncertainty arises because layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. Field activity 2010-004-FA: The SB-0512i was mounted on a catamaran sled and towed at the sea surface approximately 30 - 40 m astern of the M/V Megan T. Miller. Technical difficulties during portions of 2010-004-FA caused the GPS system mounted on the catamaran to malfunction, so DGPS navigation was obtained from a receiver mounted above on top of the acquisition van (this applies to a portion of l63f1 and subsequent data collected over Julian days 138 - 140). Layback positions, which account for the linear distance between the shipboard DGPS receiver and the towed catamaran vehicle, were calculated trigonometrically during post-processing (see processing step 3). While the vehicle mounted GPS antenna was operational, positional accuracy is assumed to be ± 10 m. While the vehicle mounted GPS was not operational, positional accuracy is assumed to be ± 20 m; increased uncertainty arises because layback calculations do not account for fish motion behind the vessel, which is caused by sea state and vessel speed induced changes in the angle and scope of the tow cable. Field activity 2011-004-FA: The SB-0512i was mounted on a catamaran sled and towed at the sea surface approximately 50 m astern of the M/V Scarlett Isabella. Position data were provided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation receiver mounted on the catamaran, and data were transmitted to the acquisition computer on the vessel via a 2.4 GHz radio link. Positional accuracy is assumed to be ± 10 m.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Only the subsets of seismic-reflection data collected during field activities 2009-002-FA, 2010-004-FA, and 2011-004-FA that are within the Vineyard Sound study are included in this spatial dataset. Trackline navigation for approximately 3800 km of additional seismic-reflection profiles collected within Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts during these field activities were published in USGS Open-File Report 2012-1006 High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1006/).
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Processed seismic data were converted to JPEG format for ease of seismic trace display. Quality control was conducted during processing.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. Is there some other way to get the data?
    Digital copies of these chirp seismic data may also be obtained in the SEG-Y Rev. 1 standard format upon request. The data would be packaged on DVD, and contain the chirp-processed, envelope traces.
  6. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    These data can be viewed with any JPEG image viewing software. The zip files must be uncompressed in order to view the JPEG images.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Wayne Baldwin
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2226 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
wbaldwin@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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