Composite interferometric backscatter mosaic collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA in Middle Ground, MA, 201 (UTM Zone 19N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF, 1-m resolution, Swath_1m.tif)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Composite interferometric backscatter mosaic collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA in Middle Ground, MA, 201 (UTM Zone 19N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF, 1-m resolution, Swath_1m.tif)
Abstract:
These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC). Initiated in 2003, the primary objective of this program is to develop regional geologic framework information for the management of coastal and marine resources. Accurate data and maps of seafloor geology are important first steps toward protecting fish habitat, delineating marine resources, and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human impacts. The project is focused on the inshore waters of coastal Massachusetts, primarily in water depths of 2-30 meters. Data collected for the mapping cooperative have been released in a series of USGS Open-File Reports (https://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/). The data collected in this study area are located in both Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound and are primarily in the shallow water areas around the eastern Elizabeth Islands and Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The data include high resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, sound velocity in water, seismic-reflection profiles, and navigation data. These data were collected during several cruises between 2007 and 2011 onboard the R/V Rafael using the following equipment: an SEA Ltd SwathPlus interferometric sonar (234 kHz), Klein 3000 dual frequency sidescan sonar, a boomer source and Geometrics 8-channel GeoEel streamer, a Knudsen 3200 subbottom profiling system, and 4 GPS antennae. More information about the cruises conducted as part of the project: Geologic Mapping of the Seafloor Offshore of Massachusetts can be found on the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Field Activity webpages: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2011-013-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2009-068-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2007-039-FA, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2010-100-FA, and https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2010-047-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, Composite interferometric backscatter mosaic collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA in Middle Ground, MA, 201 (UTM Zone 19N, WGS 84, GeoTIFF, 1-m resolution, Swath_1m.tif): Open-File Report 2011-1184, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A., Andrews, Brian D., Danforth, William W., and Foster, David S., 2014, High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2013-1020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.678356
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.600611
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.493435
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.463084
  3. What does it look like?
    https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1020/GIS_catalog/sidescan/Swath/swath_bs.png (PNG)
    grey scale image of backscatter mosaic
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 05-Nov-2007
    Currentness_Reference:
    Middle Ground data were collected on 3 separate Julian Days in 2007 and 2009. This image also contains data from one day during survey 2011-013-FA.
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 3249 x 6432 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with a GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 24-bit data range. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values). The background color is set to 255-255-255 and can be turned off without removing data values.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2259 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This GeoTIFF (Tagged Image File Format) contains acoustic backscatter data that were collected between 2007 and 2011. These data are used to define the sea-floor morphology on the nearshore around the Elizabeth Islands and within sand shoals of Vineyard Sound.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Information unavailable from original metadata (source 1 of 1)
    Information unavailable from original metadata - assumed USGS, unknown, Information unavailable from original metadata.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Source_Contribution:
    Backscatter data were acquired with a SEA Swathplus interferometric sonar (234 kHz) mounted on the bow of the R/V Rafael of Woods Hole, MA. The data were acquired with SwathPlus Software (versions: 3.7.10 (2011-013-FA), 3.6.0 (2009-068-FA), and 3.3.0 (2007-039-FA)). Tracklines are spaced between 30 and 100 m apart in the shore parallel direction.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2010 (process 1 of 5)
    SwathPlus Software (version: 3.7.10, 3.6.0, and 3.3.0) was used to acquire the raw swath data (*.sxr) and output a processed soundings file (*.sxp). No bathy filters were applied to the processed file (.sxp) for backscatter data. This retains all useable recorded data to produce the best image with the most contrast in the processing software. Person who carried out this activity:
    Brian Andrews
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700x2348 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    bandrews@usgs.gov
    Date: 2010 (process 2 of 5)
    Swathplus processed backscatter files (.sxp's) were imported into Chesapeake Technology Inc.'s SonarWiz software (version 5), where an empirical gain normalization function for backscatter (Finlayson, 2010), was used to interpolate across data gaps at nadir and enhance the visual display of the data by optimizing the dynamic range of backscatter intensity. SonarWiz was also used to mosaic the lines into a single backscatter file, then exported the mosaic to a 1-meter GeoTIFF image. Person who carried out this activity:
    Elizabeth Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700x2259 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
    Date: 05-Oct-2017 (process 3 of 5)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.36 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Added the DOI link in the Identification section - both as the first link and as part of the Larger Work citation. Fixed the publication date and also the Larger Work citation title to match what is available online. Updated the link to the project page in the abstract as well as the field activity links. The source information was incomplete and had to be modified to meet the standard. Fixed a link in the distribution section. Removed the offline distribution. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 4 of 5)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 5 of 5)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Andrews, B.D., Ackerman, S.D., Baldwin, W.E., Foster, D.S., and Schwab, W.C., 2013, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From the Inner Continental Shelf at Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1006, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Ackerman, S.D., Andrews, B.D., Foster, D.S., Baldwin, W.E., and Schwab, W.C., 2013, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1002, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Pendleton, E.A., Twichell, D.C., Foster, D.S., Worley, C.R., Irwin, B.J., and Danforth, W.W., 2012, High-Resolution Geophysical Data From the Sea Floor Surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2011-1184, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Turecek, A.M., Danforth, W.W., Baldwin, W.E., and Barnhardt, W.A., 2012, High-Resolution Geophysical Data Collected Within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009: Open-File Report 2010-1091, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Gann, John, unknown, Sonar Wiz 5: Chesapeake Technology Inc., Mountain View, CA.

    Online Links:

    Finlayson, David, 2011, SXPTools User Guide: U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz, CA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    The navigation for these data was acquired with a Coda Octopus F180 Differential Global Positioning System + Wide Area Augmentation System (DGPS+WAAS); they are accurate to + or - 1 to 2 meters, horizontally. All DGPS data are referenced to WGS84, and vertical distance between the pole-mounted interferometric sonar head, 0.5m below the sea surface, and the DGPS antenna located on the same pole on the bow of the R/V Rafael, 2.5 m above the sea surface, are corrected.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Interferometric backscatter data were used around Middle Ground to fill data gaps and supplement the sidescan sonar mosaic from survey 2011-013-FA. The Klein sidescan sonar was not operational (due to malfunction) for 5 lines near Martha's Vineyard and parts of Middle Ground were not surveyed in 2011. In order to create a complete backscatter mosaic, the 5 missing Klein lines were processed for backscatter using the interferometric data from 2011-013-FA (Julian Day 216) and interferometric data from 2007-039-FA and 2009-068-FA.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All interferometric backscatter were collected during USGS-WHCMSC cruise 2011-013-FA, 2009-068-FA, and 2007-039-FA using a SEA Swathplus interferometric sonar and a Coda F180 Octopus attitude system. Quality control was conducted during processing of the data. Any spurious data or artifacts were removed or minimized.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Elizabeth A. Pendleton
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    (508) 548-8700x2259 (voice)
    (508) 457-2310 (FAX)
    ependleton@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains a GeoTIFF image. To utilize these data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GeoTIFF image and it's assocaited world file.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
Elizabeth A. Pendleton
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA

(508) 548-8700x2259 (voice)
(508) 457-2310 (FAX)
ependleton@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr2013-1020/Swath_1m.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.50 on Tue Sep 21 18:20:39 2021