1-m backscatter mosaic produced from backscatter intensity data from sidescan sonar and multibeam datasets (BS_composite_1m.tif, GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
1-m backscatter mosaic produced from backscatter intensity data from sidescan sonar and multibeam datasets (BS_composite_1m.tif, GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)
Abstract:
Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Foster, David S., 2014, 1-m backscatter mosaic produced from backscatter intensity data from sidescan sonar and multibeam datasets (BS_composite_1m.tif, GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84): Open-File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Foster, David S., Baldwin, Wayne E., Barnhardt, Walter A., Schwab, William C., Ackerman, Seth D., Andrews, Brian D., and Pendleton, Elizabeth A., 2014, Shallow Geology, Sea-Floor Texture, Physiographic Zones, and Depositional History of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2014-1220, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.132099
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -70.592494
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.769097
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.366862
  3. What does it look like?
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1220/GIS_catalog/SourceData/bs_browse.png (PNG)
    Composite backscatter mosaic image
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-2004
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-2011
    Currentness_Reference:
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 36000 x 43200 x 1, type Pixel
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 19
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000
      Planar coordinates are encoded using row and column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters
      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    There are no attributes associated with this 8-bit GeoTIFF image. Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255) with the data range 0-254 and 255 being no data. Although most of the small slivers and data gaps within the mosaic have a value of 254. Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values).
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • David S. Foster
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This backscatter intensity mosaic was created as a single continuous image of the acoustic reflectivity of the sea floor for Buzzards Bay. Generally, higher backscatter values (light tones) represent rock, boulders, cobbles, gravel, and coarse sand. Lower values (dark tones) usually represent fine sand and muddy sediment. These data in both this final form and at the input resolutions helped define the sediment texture and distribution maps presented as interpretive data layers in USGS OFR 2014-1220.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    Poppe and others, 2007 (source 1 of 7)
    Poppe, L.J., Ackerman, S.D., Foster, D.S., Blackwood, D.S., Butman, B., Moser, M.S., and Stewart, H.F., 2007, Sea-floor character and surface processes in the vicinity of Quicks Hole, Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2006-1357, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication describes the methods used for the acquisition of backscatter data for the Quicks Hole and Buzzards Bay area. Two 29-foot launches deployed from the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson were used to acquire bathymetric and backscatter data during 2004. The sidescan sonar data were acquired with a hull-mounted Klein 5250 system operating at 100 kHz.. The backscatter mosaic was later enhanced and is available through U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 2008-1196. This enhanced image was used for the Buzzards Bay composite mosaic.
    Pendleton and others, 2012 (source 2 of 7)
    Pendleton, E.A., Twichell, D.C., Foster, D.S., Worley, C.R, Irwin, B.J., and Danforth, W.W., 2012, High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2011-1184, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided source backscatter for the area of Buzzards Bay surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands. Surveying was conducted aboard the RV Rafael in September 2010. Interferometric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and chirp seismic-reflection systems were deployed simultaneously during the cruise. Sidescan-sonar (acoustic-backscatter) data were acquired with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency sidescan-sonar system (100 and 500 kHz). The 100 kHz data were used to create a backscatter mosaic. This mosaic was included in the Buzzards Bay composite mosaic.
    Turecek and others, 2012 (source 3 of 7)
    Turecek, A.M., Danforth, W.W., Baldwin, W.E., and Barnhardt, W.A., 2012, High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009: Open-File Report 2012-1091, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source backscatter data for Buzzards Bay in the area of Red Brook Harbor. Surveying was conducted aboard the R/V Rafael. Bathymetric data were collected with an SEA SWATHplus 234-kilohertz (kHz) interferometric sonar system. Acoustic backscatter, a measure of the intensity of returns from an insonified area of the sea floor, was recorded by the SEA SWATHplus interferometric sonar system.
    Ackerman and others, 2013 (source 4 of 7)
    Ackerman, S.D., Andrews, B.D., Foster, D.S., Baldwin, W.E., and Schwab, W.C., 2013, High-Resolution Geophysical Data from the Inner Continental Shelf: Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2012-1002, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source backscatter for Buzzards Bay. The mapping was conducted during research cruises aboard the Megan T. Miller (2009 and 2010) and the Scarlett Isabella (2011). The NOAA Ship RUDE acquired bathymetric soundings in 2004 using a RESON SeaBat 8125 455-kHz multibeam-echosounder system. These data were not used in the composite backscatter image. All other surveys used a Klein 3000 dual-frequency sidescan-sonar (132 and 445 kHz).
    Pendleton and others, 2014 (source 5 of 7)
    Pendleton, E.A., Andrews, B.D., Danforth, W.W., and Foster, D.S., 2014, High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2013-1020, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the source backscatter for Buzzards Bay in the area of Naushon Island. These areas were surveyed with the RV Rafael in 2011. Sidescan-sonar (acoustic-backscatter) data were acquired with a Klein 3000 dual-frequency sidescan-sonar system (100 and 500 kHz). The 100 kHz data were used to create a backscatter mosaic. This mosaic was included in the Buzzards Bay composite mosaic.
    Poppe and others, 2008 (source 6 of 7)
    Poppe, L.J., McMullen, K.Y., Foster, D.S., Blackwood, D., Williams, S., Ackerman, S.A., Barnum, S., and Brennan, R., 2008, Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Open File Report 2008-1004, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication provides the source backscatter data for Woods Hole. Two 29-foot launches deployed from the NOAA Ship Whiting were used to acquire backscatter data during 2001. The sidescan-sonar data were acquired with a hull-mounted Klein T-5000 system operating at 455 kHz aboard launch 1014.
    USGS Open-File Report 2008-1196 (source 7 of 7)
    Poppe, L.J., McMullin, K.Y., Williams, S.J., Ackerman, S.D., Glomb, K.A., and Forfinski, N.A., 2008, Enhanced Sidescan-Sonar Imagery Offshore of Southeastern Massachusetts: Open-File Report 2008-1196, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    This report provided the enhanced sidescan-sonar mosic used to create the composit backscatter image for Buzzards Bay.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2013 (process 1 of 7)
    Collected the input datasets: All the backscatter images came from USGS Open File Reports (including the NOAA collected backscatter from Hydrographic survey H11076): USGS OFR 2012-1002 - BB_backscatter1m.tif USGS OFR 2011-1184 - 2010-003-FA_SSmosaic_BuzzardsBay.tif, 2010-003-FA_SSmosaic_Nashawena.tif, 2010-003-FA_SSmosaic_Penikese.tif USGS OFR 2008-1196 - h11076_utm19_1msss.tif USGS OFR 2010-1091 - RB_Backscatter_1m.tif USGS OFR 2013-1020 - Sidescan_2011-013_1m.tif Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-5488700 x2331 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Pope and others (2007); Poppe and others, 2008; Pendleton and others (2012); Turecek and others (2012); Ackerman and others (2013); Pendleton and others (2014); USGS Open-File Report 2008-1196
    Date: 2013 (process 2 of 7)
    The backscatter image for the surveys in Red Brook Harbor (RB_Backscatter_1m.tif)(Turecek and others, 2012) and Quicks Hole (h11076_utm19_1mrsss.tif) (USGS Open-File Report 2008-1196) were stretched in Adobe Photoshop CS4 and saved as new GeoTIFF images using the GeoTIFFExamine software to transfer the georeferencing information from the original GeoTIFF to the stretched TIFF for these 2 images and create TFW files. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2331 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • Turecek and others (2012)
    Date: 2013 (process 3 of 7)
    All of the input images (or stretched images) were loaded into PCI Geomatica 2013 OrthoEngine (version 2013 SP2 2013-6-10) and mosaicked into a composite backscatter GeoTIFF (BuzzBay_mosaic1m.tif). The brightness levels for the Quick Hole image were further adjusted within PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine using the color balance tool to match the surrounding region on the final mosaic backscatter GeoTIFF image. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2331 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources used in this process:
    • All
    Date: 12-May-2016 (process 4 of 7)
    Edits to the metadata were made to fix any errors that MP v 2.9.32 flagged. This is necessary to enable the metadata to be successfully harvested for various data catalogs. In some cases, this meant adding text "Information unavailable" or "Information unavailable from original metadata" for those required fields that were left blank. Other minor edits were probably performed (title, publisher, publication place, etc.). Empty fields were deleted. Links to the data were fixed. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. The metadata available from a harvester may supersede metadata bundled within a download file. Compare the metadata dates to determine which metadata file is most recent. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 20-Jul-2018 (process 5 of 7)
    USGS Thesaurus keywords added to the keyword section. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 18-Nov-2019 (process 6 of 7)
    Crossref DOI link was added as the first link in the metadata. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 08-Sep-2020 (process 7 of 7)
    Added keywords section with USGS persistent identifier as theme keyword. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2013, Geologic Mapping of the Seafloor Offshore of Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, MA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Geologic mapping of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf is a cooperative effort that was initiated in 2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-NOS) is also an important partner and contributes hydrographic data that are integrated into the maps. The overall goal of this cooperative is to determine the geologic framework of the sea floor inside the 3-mile limit of State waters, using high-resolution geophysical techniques, sediment sampling, and sea-floor photography. These topographic and bathymetric source data related to the composite backscatter image are cited in detail in the source citation section of this metadata file.

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Image pixel values contain acoustic reflectivity values normalized to an 8-bit data range (0-255). Low-backscatter is represented by dark tones (low values) and high-backscatter is represented by bright tones (high values).
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    In general, multibeam backscatter has a higher horizontal accuracy than sidescan sonar backscatter data, because there is no cable out or layback uncertainty associated with multibeam data. The horizontal accuracy of the multibeam backscatter (based on the accuracy listed in the input data) is assumed to be within 5 meters. The horizontal accuracy of sidescan sonar backscatter (also based on the accuracy reported in the input data reports) is assumed to be 10 meters. The mosaicking process in PCI used to combine all the source backscatter mosaics could introduce additional horizontal errors. This composite backscatter intensity mosaic is assumed to be horizontally accurate to within 50-meters, as additional errors could have been introduced during resampling, horizontal projections, and mosaicking within PCI.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This mosaic includes sidescan sonar and multibeam backscatter data collected during several cruises in Buzzards Bay. The input mosaics can be viewed by visiting the websites listed in the Source Information. Not all of the sources used to create the bathymetry grid were used here for the backscatter mosaic. The backscatter mosaic for the Woods Hole area (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1004) was not included in the composite mosaic because it does not join with the overall mosaic. The backscatter mosaic can be downloaded separately (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1004/)
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    This backscatter mosaic was created from several backscatter datasets that were processed and published as TIFF images (see Source Information for the individual input images). The source images were enhanced by stretching and color balancing the individual images to create a seamless backscatter mosaic. You can download the source data listed in the source contribtutions.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    David S. Foster
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    dfoster@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    The image contained in the zip file is available as a GeoTIFF with a world file. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, or an image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a TIFF image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 08-Sep-2020
Metadata author:
U.S. Geological Survey
Attn: David S. Foster
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2271 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
dfoster@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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