Point Shapefiles of Locations and Results of Ocean Bottom Ferromanganese Crusts Chemical Analyses Published in Appendix C of USGS Open-File Report 89-020

Online link https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/open_file_report/ofr1989-0020/tables1-18_ofr89-020_metadata.faq.html
Description The chemical compositions and natural distribution of ferromanganese crusts have been a topic of interest to scientific research, as well as to industrial and military applications. These crusts form largely on hard substrates in marine environments largely free from heavy amounts of sedimentation. They are distinct from ferromanganese nodules that form in abyssal geographic locations, by their chemical composition, mineralogy, and source of metals. A database containing analytical data pertaining to globally distributed crust samples was assembled from published and unpublished sources. These sources come from academic and government research laboratories, with contributions from U.S. and international sources. > Manheim and Lane-Bostwick (1989) provide analytical results gathered from published and unpublished sources in a series of 20 tables in Appendix C: >Table 1 - Composition of crusts analyzed by the USGS Reston analytical laboratories >Table 2 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by USGS Woods Hole analytical laboratories >Table 3 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Bureau of Mines Avondale analytical laboratories >Table 4 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Technical University, Clausthal-Zellerfield (TUCLZ) and the German Geological Survey >Table 5 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the SP Lee cruises L5-83HW and L5-84CP using Portaspec XRF >Table 5a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed onboard the R/V Sonne cruises Midpac2a and Midpac2b using XRF >Table 6 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by the Japanese (Usui, unpublished data) >Table 7 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Analytical Services Company (cruise KK84) >Table 8 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - major and minor analyses; Table 8a - Composition of ferromanganese crusts analyzed by Aplin (PhD. thesis) - rare earth elements >Table 9 - Composition of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank - major and minor analyses >Table 10 - Trace analyses of crusts from the Scripps Nodule Databank >Table 11 - Composition of Manganese oxide as reported by the NGDC - major and minor analyses >Table 12 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Glasby (written communication), Dillard and Crowther (1984) and Exon (1982) >Table 13 - Composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Volkov and others (1976) and Dymond and others (1984) >Table 14 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in Goddard and others (1987) >Table 15 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crust layers as reported in Goddard and others (1987) >Table 16 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) >Table 17 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in DeCarlo and others (1987) >Table 18 - Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts as reported in OF87-281 (Hein and others, 1987). > Citation list: > Aplin, A.C., 1983, The geochemistry and environment of deposition of some ferromanganese oxide deposits from the south equatorial Pacific: D.Sc. dissertation, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London, 347 p. > DeCarlo, E.H., McMurtry, G.M., and Kim, K.H., 1987, Geochemistry of ferromanganese crusts from the Hawaiian Archipelago Exclusive Economic Zone - Northern survey areas; Deep-Sea Research, v. 34, p. 441-467. > Dillard, J.D., Crowther, D.L., 1984, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of ferromanganese nodules: Chemical speciation for selected transition metals: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, no. 5, p. 1565-1569. > Dymond, J., Lyle, M., Finney, B., Piper, D.Z., Murphy, K., Conard, R., and Pisia, N., 1984, Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R - Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 48, p. 931-949. > Exon, N.F., 1982, Offshore sediments, phosphorite and manganese nodules in the Samoan region, southwest pacific: Southwest Pacific Marine Geological Notes, v. 2, no. 7, p. 103-120. > Goddard, D.A., Thompson, G., Jones, E.J.W., and Okada, H., 1987, The chemistry and mineralogy of ferromanganese encrustations on rocks from the Sierra Leone Rise, Equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge and New England Seamount Chain: Marine Geology, v. 77, p. 87-98. > Hein, J.R., Fleishman, C.L., Morgenson, L.A., Bloomer, S.H., and Stern, R.J., 1987, Submarine ferromanganese deposits from the Mariana and Volcano volcanic arcs, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-281, 9 p. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr87281. > Manheim, F.T., Lane-Bostwick, C.M., 1989, Chemical composition of ferromanganese crusts in the world ocean: A review and comprehensive database: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 89-020, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0020/report.pdf > Volkov, I.I., Fomina, L.S., and Yagadinskaya, T.A., 1976, Chemical composition of iron-manganese concretions of the Pacific Ocean on the transect from Wake Atoll to the Mexican coast (in Russian), in Volkov, I.I. (ed.), Biokhimiya Diageneza Osadkov Okeana, Nauka, Moscow, p. 186-204. [More]
Originators U.S. Geological Survey; Manheim, Frank T.; and Bostwick, Candice M.

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