Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coral Reef Ecosystems Studies (CREST) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/) provides science that helps resource managers tasked with the stewardship of coral reef resources. Coral reef organisms are very sensitive to high and low water-temperature extremes. It is critical to precisely know water temperatures experienced by corals and associated plants and animals that live in the dynamic nearshore environment to document thresholds in temperature tolerance. This dataset provides underwater temperature data recorded every fifteen minutes from 2009 to 2021 at six off-shore coral reefs in the Florida Keys, USA. From northeast to southwest, these sites are Fowey Rocks (Biscayne National Park), Molasses Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, FKNMS, site terminated in 2013), Crocker Reef (FKNMS, site added in 2013), Sombrero Reef (FKNMS), Pulaski Shoal Light (Dry Tortugas National Park), and Pulaski Shoal West (Dry Tortugas National Park, site added in 2016). Portions of the dataset included here were interpreted in conjunction with coral and/or algal calcification rates in publications including Kuffner and others (2020), and Lenz and others (2021). See the cross-reference section of the metadata for a complete list of publications.
Scientific research permits: The data were collected under the Biscayne National Park permits: BISC-2009-SCI-0019; BISC-2010-SCI-0035; BISC-2011-SCI-0025; BISC-2013-SCI-0011; BISC-2014-SCI-0020; BISC-2015-SCI-0003; BISC-2016-SCI-0003; BISC-2017-SCI-0011; BISC-2017-SCI-0011; BISC-2018-SCI-0014; BISC-2019-SCI-0010; BISC-2020-SCI-0013; accession number BISC-228. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary permits: FKNMS-2008-062-A1; FKNMS-2010-068; FKNMS-2010-122; FKNMS-2013-024-A2; FKNMS-2016-085; FKNMS-2019-139-A1. Dry Tortugas National Park permits: DRTO-2009-SCI-0009; DRTO-2011-SCI-0004; DRTO-2013-SCI-0008; DRTO-2015-SCI-0010; DRTO-2016-0010; DRTO-2017-SCI-0001; DRTO-2019-SCI-0005; DRTO-2021-SCI-0013; accession number DRTO-274. To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS field activity number (FAN): 09CBC01, 09CBC02, 09CBC03, 09CBC04, 09CBC05, 10CBC01, 10CBC02, 10CBC03, 10CBC04, 11CBC01, 11CBC02, 11CBC03, 12CBC02, 12CBC03, 12CBC04, 13CBC01, 13CBC02, 13CBC03, 13CBC04, 2014-332-FA, 2015-313-FA, 2015-319-FA, 2015-337-FA, 2016-323-FA, 2016-357-FA, 2017-311-FA, 2017-352-FA, 2018-327-FA, 2018-359-FA, 2019-316-FA, 2019-367-FA, 2020-307-FA and 2021-343-FA. Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Kuffner, Ilsa B., 20220309, Underwater temperature on off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Kuffner, Ilsa B., 20160121, Underwater temperature data collected from off-shore coral reefs of the Florida Keys, U.S.A.: U.S. Geological Survey data release doi:10.5066/F71C1TZK, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.7728
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.0956
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.59047
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.62687
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 13-Apr-2009
    Ending_Date: 11-Nov-2021
    ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    FL_coral_underwater_temps_to_Nov2021.csv, FL_coral_underwater_temps_to_Nov2021.xlsx
    This file contains attribute information for the coral underwater temperature dataset collected from the Florida Keys from April 2009 to November 2021. When viewing, FL_coral_underwater_temps_to_Nov2021.csv, please note that empty fields (sites where no temperature values were recorded) are not represented by any characters in this Comma Separated Value (CSV) file, thus one only sees the separator commas ",". To view the data in a tab-delimited format arranged by column, please use the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (XLSX). (Source: USGS)
    Time, GMT-04:00
    Site-specific date and time information downloaded from the HOBO Water Temp Pro V2 data loggers. (Source: USGS) Dates are expressed in MM/DD/YYYY format; times are presented in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) minus four hours HH:MM format.
    Date, in MM/DD/YYYY format (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Time, in HH:MM format. (Source: USGS) Times were recorded using GMT -04:00.
    Pulaski Light
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Pulaski Shoal Light (24.69355°N, 82.77280°W) in 16 feet of seawater, data from June 2009 to November 2021. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Sombrero Reef (24.62687°N, 81.10893°W) in 14 feet of seawater, data from July 2009 to October 2021. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Molasses Reef (25.01047°N, 80.37530°W) in 13 feet of seawater, data from April 2009 to April 2013. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Fowey Rocks (25.59047°N, 80.09560°W) in 13 feet of seawater, data from August 2009 to October 2021. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Crocker Reef (24.90908°N, 80.52665°W) in 13 feet of seawater, data from June 2013 to October 2021. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    Pulaski West
    Underwater temperature (degrees Celsius) at Pulaski Shoal West (24.70280°N, 82.79883°W) in 12 feet of seawater, data from December 2016 to November 2021. (Source: USGS)
    Range of values
    The entity and attribute information provided here describes the tabular data associated with the dataset. Please review the detailed descriptions that are provided (the individual attribute descriptions) for information on the values that appear as fields/table entries of the dataset.
    The entity and attribute information were generated by the individual and/or agency identified as the originator of the dataset. Please review the rest of the metadata record for additional details and information.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Ilsa B. Kuffner
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Acknowledgment of the USGS Coastal/Marine Hazards and Resources Program, as a data source, would be appreciated in products developed from these data, and such acknowledgment as is standard for citation and legal practices for data source is expected.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL

    727-502-8000 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

Data were obtained to assess the dynamic, underwater temperature environment experienced by coral reef organisms. These data will be used to ground truth sea-surface temperatures measured by satellites, improve hydrodynamic and heat-transfer models, and to inform conservation and management decisions.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 13-Apr-2009 (process 1 of 1)
    Temperature data were recorded with Onset HOBO Water Temp Pro V2 (U22-001) data loggers, in duplicate, at each site. Loggers were attached to concrete blocks fixed to the reef with stainless-steel rods and epoxy at depths of 11 to 16 feet of seawater. The 15-minute interval temperature data reported are the means of two loggers approximately 30 to 50 feet apart and within 1 to 3 feet in depth from one another. All loggers were placed at the same height above the substratum (approximately 2 to 4 inches). Every six months, using a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), new loggers were carried underwater by divers at the USGS and swapped with the old loggers such that there was always an overlapping time segment when all four loggers were underwater (also known as, "hot-swapped"). In rare cases when one logger was lost or damaged during deployment, the temperature from a single logger is reported. There is only one short gap in the dataset, for Fowey Rocks (five data points on May 4, 2010 between 10:45 and 11:45), due to logger programming issues. Measurements were stopped at Molasses Reef in April 2013, did not begin at Crocker Reef until June 2013, and did not begin at Pulaski Shoal West until December 2016. Data collection continues at the five current sites and the data release will be updated, as needed.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Kuffner, I. B., Hickey, T. D., and Morrison, J. M., 20130608, Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract: Coral Reefs Volume 32, Issue 4, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Online Links:

    Kuffner, I. B., Roberts, K. E., Flannery, J. A., Morrison, J. M., and Richey, J. N., 20170103, Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems Volume 18, Issue 1, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.

    Online Links:

    Kuffner, I. B., Toth, L. T., Hudson, J. H., Goodwin, W. B., Stathakopoulos, A., Bartlett, L. A., and Whitcher, E. M., 20190425, Improving estimates of coral reef construction and erosion with in situ measurements: Limnology and Oceanography Volume 64, Issue 5, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.

    Online Links:

    Kuffner, I. B., Stathakopoulos, A., Toth, L. T., and Bartlett, L. A., 20201217, Reestablishing a stepping-stone population of the threatened elkhorn coral Acropora palmata to aid regional recovery: Endangered Species Research Volume 43, Inter-Research Science Publisher, Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany.

    Online Links:

    Lenz, E. A., Bartlett, L. A., Stathakopoulos, A., and Kuffner, I. B., 20210622, Physiological differences in bleaching response of the coral Porites astreoides along the Florida Keys reef tract during high-temperature stress: Frontiers in Marine Science Volume 8, Frontiers, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Online Links:

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    No formal attribute accuracy tests were conducted.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted.
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Dataset is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints None
Use_Constraints Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. The U.S. Geological Survey requests to be acknowledged as originator of these data in future products or derivative research.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Ilsa B. Kuffner
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th Street South
    Saint Petersburg, FL

    727-502-8000 (voice)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? FL_coral_underwater_temps_to_Nov2021.csv, FL_coral_underwater_temps_to_Nov2021.xlsx
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    This publication was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution imply any such warranty. The U.S. Geological Survey shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and (or) contained herein. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 09-Mar-2022
Metadata author:
Ilsa B. Kuffner
U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Geology Science Center
Research Marine Biologist
600 4th Street South
Saint Petersburg, Florida

727-502-8048 (voice)
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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