The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coral Reef Ecosystems Studies (CREST) project (https://coastal.er.usgs.gov/crest/
) provides science that helps resource managers tasked with the stewardship of coral reef resources. Coral reef organisms are very sensitive to high and low water-temperature extremes. It is critical to precisely know water temperatures experienced by corals and associated plants and animals that live in the dynamic nearshore environment to document thresholds in temperature tolerance. This dataset provides underwater temperature data recorded every fifteen minutes from 2009 to 2021 at six off-shore coral reefs in the Florida Keys, USA. From northeast to southwest, these sites are Fowey Rocks (Biscayne National Park), Molasses Reef (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, FKNMS, site terminated in 2013), Crocker Reef (FKNMS, site added in 2013), Sombrero Reef (FKNMS), Pulaski Shoal Light (Dry Tortugas National Park), and Pulaski Shoal West (Dry Tortugas National Park, site added in 2016). Portions of the dataset included here were interpreted in conjunction with coral and/or algal calcification rates in publications including Kuffner and others (2020), and Lenz and others (2021). See the cross-reference section of the metadata for a complete list of publications.
Data were obtained to assess the dynamic, underwater temperature environment experienced by coral reef organisms. These data will be used to ground truth sea-surface temperatures measured by satellites, improve hydrodynamic and heat-transfer models, and to inform conservation and management decisions.
Scientific research permits:
The data were collected under the Biscayne National Park permits: BISC-2009-SCI-0019; BISC-2010-SCI-0035; BISC-2011-SCI-0025; BISC-2013-SCI-0011; BISC-2014-SCI-0020; BISC-2015-SCI-0003; BISC-2016-SCI-0003; BISC-2017-SCI-0011; BISC-2017-SCI-0011; BISC-2018-SCI-0014; BISC-2019-SCI-0010; BISC-2020-SCI-0013; accession number BISC-228. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary permits: FKNMS-2008-062-A1; FKNMS-2010-068; FKNMS-2010-122; FKNMS-2013-024-A2; FKNMS-2016-085; FKNMS-2019-139-A1. Dry Tortugas National Park permits: DRTO-2009-SCI-0009; DRTO-2011-SCI-0004; DRTO-2013-SCI-0008; DRTO-2015-SCI-0010; DRTO-2016-0010; DRTO-2017-SCI-0001; DRTO-2019-SCI-0005; DRTO-2021-SCI-0013; accession number DRTO-274.
To ensure that USGS-St. Petersburg data management protocols were followed, each survey was assigned the following USGS field activity number (FAN): 09CBC01, 09CBC02, 09CBC03, 09CBC04, 09CBC05, 10CBC01, 10CBC02, 10CBC03, 10CBC04, 11CBC01, 11CBC02, 11CBC03, 12CBC02, 12CBC03, 12CBC04, 13CBC01, 13CBC02, 13CBC03, 13CBC04, 2014-332-FA, 2015-313-FA, 2015-319-FA, 2015-337-FA, 2016-323-FA, 2016-357-FA, 2017-311-FA, 2017-352-FA, 2018-327-FA, 2018-359-FA, 2019-316-FA, 2019-367-FA, 2020-307-FA and 2021-343-FA. Additional survey and data details are available from the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) at, https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/