Geotagged images of sediment grabs collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior during USGS Field Activity 2021-005-FA using the USGS MiniSEABOSS (JPEG images; GCS WGS 84)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Geotagged images of sediment grabs collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior during USGS Field Activity 2021-005-FA using the USGS MiniSEABOSS (JPEG images; GCS WGS 84)
Abstract:
In August 2021, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected high-resolution geophysical data, sediment samples, and bottom imagery to determine the distribution of historical mine tailings on the floor of Lake Superior. Large amounts of waste material from copper mining, locally known as “stamp sands,” were dumped into the lake in the early 20th century, with wide-reaching consequences that have continued into the present. Mapping was focused offshore of the town of Gay on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan, where ongoing erosion and re-deposition of the stamp sands has buried miles of native, white-sand beaches. Stamp sands are also encroaching onto Buffalo Reef, a large area of cobble/boulder substrate that supports productive fisheries in the lake.
The objectives of this cooperative mapping project are to develop a framework for scientific research and provide baseline information required for management of resources within the coastal zone of northern Michigan. High-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data reveal the irregular topography of the shallow, cobble-covered Buffalo Reef and the relatively smooth surface of finer-grained sediment that covers adjacent, deeper parts of the lake floor. Previous research used numerous sediment samples to determine the general distribution of mine tailings on the lake floor in this area, but little information exists on the extent and thickness of the surficial deposits. The main priority of this project is to image the near-surface stratigraphy, specifically the thickness of surficial sand and mud that threaten to cover the reef, with seismic-reflection profiling systems. In addition to continuous coverage of bathymetric and backscatter data, this project collected a dense grid of closely spaced seismic profiles in 2018, which will guide efforts to mitigate the environmental impacts of the shifting stamp sands.
This 2021 (2021-005-FA) survey is the second survey conducted by the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) in Grand Traverse Bay, Houghton County MI. The first survey conducted in September 2018 (2018-043-FA) was a regional geologic framework study that covered a large area (30 sq km) and lower resolution (2-m) and included both single-channel, and swept frequency (chirp) subbottom seismic profiles. Data from this survey were published in Andrews and other (2020), see cross-reference section below for details. The data from the 2018 survey was used to plan the higher resolution (less than 1-m) 2021 survey that covered a smaller area (14 sq km) focused on Buffalo Reef and included 410 bottom photographs, and 60 sediment samples collected using the MiniSEABOSS.
Supplemental_Information:
Data were collected using the R/V Rafael, owned, and operated by the USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center. Additional information on the field activity is available from https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2021-005-FA
Field Activity 2021-005-FA was conducted in coordination with the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), while they were surveying the inshore (shallow) portions of the study area concurrently. Multibeam depth and backscatter data collected by GLSC at the same time are published in Pecoraro and others 2022 (see cross reference below).
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 20220609, Geotagged images of sediment grabs collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior during USGS Field Activity 2021-005-FA using the USGS MiniSEABOSS (JPEG images; GCS WGS 84): data release DOI:10.5066/P9NJY125, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Andrews, Brian D., Barnhardt, Walter A., Moore, Eric M., Nichols, Alex R., Ackerman, Seth D., and Berube, Patrick J., 2022, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2021-005-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/P9NJY125, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Suggested citation: Andrews, B.D., Barnhardt, W.A., Moore, E.M., Nichols, A.R., Ackerman, S.D., and Berube, P.J. 2022, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2021-005-FA: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9NJY125
  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.2354649
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -88.1709371
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.209077
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.169313
  3. What does it look like?
    https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/file/get/623c924dd34e915b67d395eb?name=2021-005-FA_SEABOSS_samplepics_browse.jpg (JPEG)
    Browse graphic of sediment sample photographs collected within Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Superior, Michigan.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 13-Aug-2021
    Ending_Date: 15-Aug-2021
    Currentness_Reference:
    data were collected on the following dates: 20210813-20210815 (Julian day 225-227).
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    2021005FA_SEABOSS_samplepics
    JPEG-format images collected of the sediment sample in the sampler upon recovery of the MiniSEABOSS after each deployment in Lake Superior, Michigan, in August 2021 during USGS field activity 2021-005-FA (61 JPEG-formatted images). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    This dataset contains 61 geotagged JPEG images of the sediment samples in the USGS MiniSEABOSS, in August 2021 during USGS field activity 2021-005-FA. Survey information was also incorporated into the metadata embedded in the header of each JPEG image. Locations can be extracted from the set of photos using the code mentioned above at the end of Process Step 4.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: U.S. Geological Survey

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road.
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This dataset provides the geotagged images of sediment grabs collected within the Van Veen sampler on the Mini SEABed Observation and Sampling System (MiniSEABOSS) aboard R/V Rafael during USGS field activity 2021-005-FA (August 2021). These data were collected to characterize the lakebed by identifying sediment texture and to ground-truth acoustic data collected during the same USGS field activity. These images are taken with a Nikon D7100 digital camera immediately upon recovery of the sampler after each deployment. These images are used to visually classify grain size and sediment color.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 15-Aug-2021 (process 1 of 4)
    STEP 1: COLLECT SEDIMENT SAMPLES WITH THE MINISEABOSS.
    A geophysical and geological sampling survey (field activity 2021-005-FA) was conducted in Lake Superior, Michigan, in August 2021. The R/V Rafael occupied preselected target sites, and the MiniSEABOSS was deployed off the vessel's port side from a davit just aft of the cabin. The MiniSEABOSS was equipped with a modified Van Veen grab sampler, Canon PowerShot G12 digital still camera, an independent strobe, an oblique downward-looking monochrome video camera with a topside feed and a dive light to illuminate the lakebed for photograph collection. The elements of this particular MiniSEABOSS were held within a stainless-steel frame that measured ~1 x 1 meter. The frame had a stabilizer fin that oriented the system as it drifted over the lakebed. Two red lasers were set 20 centimeters apart (both as they were mounted on the MiniSEABOSS frame and as seen in photographs and video on the lake) for scale measurements. The red laser dots can usually be seen in the lakebed photos depending on the bottom type and distance to the bottom. The winch operator lowered the MiniSEABOSS until the lakebed was observed in the topside live video feed. Generally, the vessel and MiniSEABOSS drifted with wind and current for up to a few minutes to ensure a decent photo with a clear view of the lakebed was acquired. The Canon camera was triggered manually by an operator watching the video stream. The photographed area is usually 0.5 to 1.25 meters (across) from left to right. Bottom video used to guide the photo-taking and avoid obstacles was not recorded. Fourteen sites did not have any usable photographs. After photographs were taken, the winch operator lowered the Van Veen grab sampler until it rested on the bottom. When the system was raised, the Van Veen grab sampler closed and collected a sample as it was lifted off the lakebed. The sampler was recovered to the deck of the survey vessel where a photograph of the undisturbed sample in the Van Veen grab sampler was taken before it was subsampled and bagged for further sediment analyses. During the survey, DGPS navigation from a Hemisphere R131 DGPS receiver was logged through a serial connection to a computer running the Global Mapper software package to visualize and record the vessel's spatial location throughout the sampling survey. The DGPS was set to receive fixes at a 1-second interval in geographic coordinates (WGS 84). Dates and times were recorded in UTC. Log files were saved for each survey in NMEA text format. Person who carried out this activity:
    Seth Ackerman
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Rd.
    Woods Hole, MA
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    sackerman@usgs.gov
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    • Raw navigation data
    Date: Mar-2022 (process 2 of 4)
    Step 2: CULL AND RENAME PHOTOGRAPHS.
    The sample photos were culled to include just one of each topside sample image. The photos were manually renamed by pre-pending the name sampling site on the sequential camera-named photos (e.g. the photo from sampling site 2021-005-002 became 2021-005-002_DSB_8189.JPG; where 2021-005 is part of the field activity number, 002 is the sequential sampling site number, and DSB_8189.JPG is the original Nikon filename of the photo). Data sources used in this process:
    • Original JPEG photographs
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Selected renamed JPEG photographs
    Date: Mar-2022 (process 3 of 4)
    STEP 3: GEOTAGGED PHOTOGRAPHS.
    The JPEG images do not represent spatial data; however, they were geotagged by linking the image to the sediment analyses spreadsheet which included the position information for each sediment sample. Geotagging these photos provides the spatial location where the sediment sample was collecting and embeds that information into the header of each JPEG image. The photos were geotagged by preparing a csv text file with the following columns of data for each image:
    SourceFile,GPSDateStamp,GPSTimeStamp,GPSLatitude,GPSLatitudeRef,GPSLongitude,GPSLongitudeRef
    Then exiftool (version 12.30) was used to geotag the images: exiftool -csv=photosampleinfo.csv . Data sources used in this process:
    • Selected renamed JPEG photographs
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Geotagged JPEG photographs
    Date: Mar-2022 (process 4 of 4)
    Step 4: Incorporated survey information into the photos' header metadata.
    Additional survey information was incorporated into the metadata embedded in the header of each JPEG image. Images may have different metadata formats embedded in their headers, and the commands below incorporated survey information into the following three image metadata formats: Exchangeable image file format (Exif), International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), and Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP). The second command below duplicates values from Exif and IPTC metadata tags to XMP tags because various software packages read different tags. Please note that only a subset of these tags may be accessed depending on the software used to view the image metadata.
    Command to incorporate survey information into the metadata embedded in the header of each JPEG image using ExifTool (version 12.30):
    exiftool -IPTC:Credit="U.S. Geological Survey" -IPTC:Contact="WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov" -EXIF:Copyright="Public Domain" -XMP:UsageTerms="Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty." -EXIF:ImageDescription="https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2021-005-FA;Photograph of the USGS MiniSEABOSS VanVeen grab sampler upon recovery during field activity 2021-005-FA; Lake Superior; Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan" -XMP:AttributionURL="https://doi.org/10.5066/P9NJY125" -EXIF:GPSAreaInformation="position post-processed from when the sample was collected as determined by a nearby GPS; this is not necessarilyarily the location that the photo was taken" -EXIF:GPSMapDatum="EPSG:4326 (WGS 84)" -overwrite_original -P *.JPG
    Command to duplicate metadata from the Exif and IPTC formats to XMP using ExifTool:
    exiftool -P -m "-XMP-photoshop:Credit<IPTC:Credit" "-XMP-iptcCore:CreatorWorkEmail<IPTC:Contact" "-XMP-dc:Rights<EXIF:Copyright" "-XMP-dc:Description<EXIF:ImageDescription" "-XMP-exif:all<GPS:all" "-XMP-exif:GPSLatitude<Composite:GPSLatitude" "-XMP-exif:GPSLongitude<Composite:GPSLongitude" "-XMP-exif:GPSDateTime<Composite:GPSDateTime" "-XMP-photoshop:DateCreated<EXIF:DateTimeOriginal" "-XMP-xmp:ModifyDate<EXIF:ModifyDate" "-XMP-dc:Creator<EXIF:Artist" "-XMP-tiff:Make<EXIF:Make" "-XMP-tiff:Model<EXIF:Model" -overwrite_original *.JPG
    The following metadata tags were populated in the JPEG image header using the above ExifTool commands:
    Exif tags and the information used to populate these tags:
    Artist: Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Sea Floor Mapping Group (SFMG) Copyright: Public Domain GPSAreaInformation: position post-processed from when the sample was collected as determined by a nearby GPS; this is not necessarily the location that the photo was taken GPSMapDatum: EPSG:4326 (WGS 84) ImageDescription: https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fan=2021-005-FA;Photograph of the USGS MiniSEABOSS VanVeen grab sampler upon recovery during field activity 2021-005-FA; Lake Superior; Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan
    IPTC tags and the information used to populate these tags:
    Contact: WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
    XMP tags and the information used to populate these tags:
    AttributionURL: https://doi.org/10.5066/P9NJY125 Creator: duplicated from Exif Artist CreatorWorkEmail: duplicated from IPTC Contact Credit: duplicated from IPTC Credit DateCreated: duplicated from Exif DateTimeOriginal Description: duplicated from Exif ImageDescription GPSAreaInformation: duplicated from Exif GPSAreaInformation by copying all the Exif GPS tags to the same-named tags in XMP (-XMP-exif:all<GPS:all) GPSDateTime: duplicated using the composite of Exif GPSDateStamp and Exif GPSTimeStamp GPSLatitude: duplicated using the composite of Exif GPSLatitude and Exif GPSLatitudeRef GPSLongitude: duplicated using the composite of Exif GPSLongitude and Exif GPSLongitudeRef GPSMapDatum: duplicated from Exif GPSMapDatum by copying all the Exif GPS tags to the same-named tags in XMP (-XMP-exif:all<GPS:all) Make: duplicated from Exif Make Model: duplicated from Exif Model ModifyDate: duplicated from Exif ModifyDate PreservedFileName: original image file name, which is unique for each image Rights: duplicated from Exif Copyright UsageTerms: Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
    To extract the geotagging and survey information (except for the duplicated tags) from the image metadata using ExifTool, the following command can be used (tested with ExifTool version 12.30):
    exiftool -csv -filename -EXIF:GPSTimeStamp -EXIF:GPSDateStamp -GPSLatitude -GPSLongitude -n -IPTC:Credit -IPTC:Contact -EXIF:Copyright -XMP:UsageTerms -EXIF:ImageDescription -XMP:AttributionURL -EXIF:GPSAreaInformation -EXIF:GPSMapDatum -EXIF:Artist *.JPG > out.csv
    The "-csv" option writes the information to a CSV file. The "-n" option formats the latitude and longitude as signed decimal degrees. Please note that the above command was tested on macOS; Windows users may need to use "exiftool.exe" instead of "exiftool." Data sources used in this process:
    • JPEG
    Data sources produced in this process:
    • Geotagged JPEG photographs with updated metadata tags
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Andrews, Brian D., Barnhardt, Walter A., Foster, David S., Irwin, Barry J., and Nichols, Alex R., 2020, High-resolution geophysical data collected in the vicinity of Buffalo Reef, Michigan, within Lake Superior, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2018-043-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/P9K4HX8V, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Pecoraro, Samuel D., Arnold, Anthony J., Esselman, Peter C., and Wright, Chris, 2022, High-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data from the Stamp Sands of Lake Superior collected using a Norbit iWBMSh multibeam echosounder during 2021: data release DOI:10.5066/P9LY9F09, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigation data were acquired using the WGS 84 coordinate system with a Hemisphere R131 DGPS receiver. DGPS positions were obtained from an antenna on the aft port side of the cabin of the R/V Rafael. DGPS positions are horizontally accurate to 0.5 - 2 meters. The horizontal offset between the antenna location and the SEABOSS deployment location (approximately 2-meter) is not accounted for.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset includes geotagged images in JPEG format of the sediment sample prior to subsampling and bagging. Sampling site where no sediment grab was successfully collected have no topside sediment sample photo. Sites where only a little sediment was collected or where a cobble or rock was stuck in the jaw of the sampler, may have a photograph included in this dataset. A total of 61 photos from 94 sampling sites are included in this dataset.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    Sediment sample images were acquired with a Nikon D7100 digital camera on the R/V Rafael upon recovery of the MiniSEABOSS sampler after each deployment. Gaps in sequential photo numbers exist. Photos were renamed in post-processing. The photos were geotagged with the location that the sediment sample was taken. Locations are not where the topside photo was taken.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints none
Use_Constraints Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely re-distributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset. These data are not to be used for navigation.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
    Denver Federal Center
    Denver, CO

    1-888-275-8747 (voice)
    sciencebase@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Geotagged images of sediment grabs within the Van Veen sampler on the Mini SEABed Observation and Sampling System (MiniSEABOSS) aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Rafael during USGS field activity 2021-005-FA (August 2021). Photos were taken with a Nikon D7100 digital camera. A browse graphic of with an example image (2021005FA_SEABOSS_samplepics_browse.jpg) and a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM) metadata file in XML format is included (2021005FA_SEABOSS_bottomphotos_meta.xml).
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. The USGS or the U.S. Government shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    To utilize these data, the user must have software capable of viewing a JPEG image.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 09-Jun-2022
Metadata author:
Seth Ackerman
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Rd.
Woods Hole, MA
USA

508-548-8700 x2315 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
sackerman@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/catalog/whcmsc/SB_data_release/DR_P9NJY125/2021-005-FA_SEABOSS_samplepics_meta.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.51 on Mon Jun 27 09:45:05 2022