Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar survey lines collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri Polyline Shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SONARTRK).

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar survey lines collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri Polyline Shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SONARTRK).
In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once established, variable leaf water-milfoil forms dense beds that can alter the limnologic characteristics of a waterbody, impacting natural lacustrine communities and their habitats. Variable leaf water-milfoil infestations also disrupt recreational uses of waterbodies and have negatively affected swimming, boating, fishing, and property values in and around several lakes and ponds in New Hampshire.
In 1965, Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee became the first waterbody in New Hampshire where variable leaf water-milfoil was observed. Variable leaf water-milfoil is native to the Southeastern and Midwestern areas of the United States where more alkaline waters appear to limit the growth of this plant. Outside its native range, however, it adapts well to the relatively acidic, low-alkalinity, and nutrient-poor conditions of oligotrophic lakes and bays similar to Moultonborough Bay.
In 2005, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the distribution (presence and density) of variable leaf water-milfoil in Moultonborough Bay. This study utilized geophysical systems and conventional water-quality measurements to identify lake-floor environments that may provide suitable habitat for the establishment and growth of variable leaf water-milfoil. The results of the study are intended to assist resource managers in federal and state agencies by providing methods for detecting variable leaf water-milfoil and for identifying areas susceptible to infestation. Ultimately, this information may lead to early detection, prevention, and more effective mitigation strategies.
Field activity information for this cruise is available on-line through the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fa=2005-004-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, Klein 3000 sidescan-sonar survey lines collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2005 (Geographic, WGS 84, Esri Polyline Shapefile, 2005-004-FA_SONARTRK).: data release DOI:10.5066/F71N7Z4H, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, J.F., Danforth, W.W., Worley, C.R., and Irwin, B.J., 2014, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005, USGS Field Activity 2005-004-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F71N7Z4H, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.390470
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.361160
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.728510
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.710750
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2005-004-FA/data/backscatter/2005-004-FA_sonartrk.jpg (JPEG)
    Image of sidescan-sonar survey tracklines collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Calendar_Date: 26-Jul-2005Currentness_Reference: ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • String (70)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Tracklines for sidescan-sonar system (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI) Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
    Feature geometry. (Source: ESRI) Coordinates defining the features.
    length of line segment in UTM, Zone 19N, WGS84, meters (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Line and file number for corresponding sidescan-sonar files. This information is used during data acquisition, processing and archival. Format: L1F2, where L = Line; 1 = Line number; F= File; 2 = File number. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 16 characters
    Sonar device used to collect sidescan-sonar data (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 50 characters
    Frequency of the sonar system used to acquire the data. Frequency is listed in kilohertz (kHz). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 50 characters
    Swath width used during acquisition of the sidescan-sonar data (meters). (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 50 characters
    Unique USGS field activity identification number in the format YYYY-NNN-FA where YYYY is the field activity year, NNN represents the number assigned to the field activity within that year, and FA stands for field activity. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 50 characters
    Date of data acquisition. Format MM/DD/YYYY. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey) String up to 50 characters
    Julian Day during which sonar data were collected (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    207Julian day is the integer number representing the interval of time in days since January 1 of the year of collection.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)

Why was the data set created?

This data set contains trackline navigation for approximately 37 km of sidescan-sonar data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during USGS field activity 2005-004-FA within Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005. The trackline navigation shows the coverage and location of sidescan-sonar data acquisition. The sidescan-sonar and bottom sample, photographs and video are used to define the sediment distribution and textural variability of the bay floor.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    none (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Raw sidescan-sonar data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: disc
    Data were acquired with an L3-Klein Associates 3000 digital, dual-frequency, sidescan-sonar (www.l-3klein.com). Dual frequencies are nominally 100 (132 kHz) and 500 (445 kHz) kHz. The sidescan-sonar was towed aft the R/V Rafael. Line spacing was 50-meters throughout the survey area. Data files were recorded with SonarPro (2005) in XTF (extended-Triton Format) format at a 0.03-sec ping rate yielding a 50-meter range (100-meter swath). The 100 kHz data were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic. The data range within the sidescan-sonar mosaic (digital number values (DN) of the 8-bit image) is 0 - 254, with the background value (i.e. No DATA) set to 255.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2005 (process 1 of 7)
    XSonar/ShowImage sidescan-sonar processing software was used to process the raw XTF sonar data following the methodology of Danforth, (1997). A 4 across track x 3 along track pixel median filter was applied to the raw sidescan-sonar data to remove speckle noise and a normalization of 4095 was applied to adjust the dynamic range within the output processed file. Processed data are stored as 8-bit. Navigation were also extracted from the raw data at 30-second intervals and saved in an ASCII file. Quality checks were conducted on the navigation to eliminate spurious or duplicate navigation fixes. The sonar data were further processed to correct for towfish altitude (i.e. proper tracking of the lakefloor), and slant-range and beam pattern distortions inherent in the sonar data. Processed sonar files were then merged with the edited navigation. Processed sonar files were then mapped at a 1-meter resolution in UTM coordinates (UTM, Zone 19N, WGS84, meters) and saved in two XSonar/ShowImage mosaic files representing odd and even (i.e. every other line) sonar tracklines, or files.
    Below are the typical parameters for processing with XSonar: File Type: XTF, Low Frequency (132 kHz)
    Setup Option: Navigation= Lat/Lon, Navigation Interval= 2 minute
    Demultiplexing Range and Filter options: Across track=4 (pixels), Along track= 3 (pixels), Port/Starboard Normalize = 4095 (default), Port High Pass: 65535 (default), Input= 16 bit, Normalize Image= yes.
    Beam Pattern Correction options: Number of lines= 100 Ping, overlap=50, Max beam angle= 90 (default), Response angle=55 (default,) Data normalization (0-255)=1 (default), Port/Stbd Tone Adjustment= "on" and "Normal"
    Jane F. Denny performed this and all subsequent process steps. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    Date: 2005 (process 2 of 7)
    A c-shell script was used to reformat the output from degrees decimal minutes to decimal degrees. Proj and AWK were used to convert decimal degrees to eastings and northings (based on UTM Zone 19 N, meters, WGS 84) and to reformat the output as a comma delimited ASCII file including headers listing field names (Easting, Northing, Line Number, Julian Day, Hour, Minute, Second, Longitude, Latitude).
    Date: 2005 (process 3 of 7)
    The ASCII file (*.csv) was imported into Esri ArcMap 9.0 using Tools - Add XY Data and converted to an event theme. The event theme was then saved to a point shapefile and the projection was defined as Geographic Coordinate System, WGS84 (GCS_WGS_1984). The point shapefile was visually inspected for spurious data points.
    Date: 2005 (process 4 of 7)
    The point shapefile containing 30-second navigation was used as input for a tool in VACExtras (version 1.8), a VB collection of tools developed by VeeAnn Cross (USGS-WHCMSC), that converts point data to a new polyline (vector) shapefile, based on the order of records contained within one attribute field. The line number field was used to define the point order and as the unique line identifier.
    Date: 2005 (process 5 of 7)
    The length of each line segment was calculated and included in a new attribute field using XTools Pro for ArcGIS desktop (version 6.2.0), specifying UTM Zone 19 N, WGS 84 - meters. Year, System, Swath, Cruise_ID,Frequency and Julian Day (JD) fields were added to the attribute table within ArcMap 9.0.
    The vector shapefile was then reprojected to the Geographic Coordinate System, WGS84 using Arc Toolbox, Data Management Tools, Projections and Transformations, Feature, Project.
    Arc Toolbox, Data Management Tools, Projections and Transformations, Project was then used to project the shapefile from UTM, Zone 19 N, meters, WGS84 to Geographic Coordinate system, WGS84.
    Date: 2014 (process 6 of 7)
    ArcGIS 9.3, Xtools 7.1.0 (Build 738) was used to convert polyines to points using Xtools, Feature Conversion, Convert Features to Points, generating a new shapefile. Xtools was then used to add X,Y coordinates to the new shapefile table, using Xtools, Table Operations, Add X,Y,Z coordinates. The table was then exported to a text file using, Xtools, Table Operations, Export table to txt. The txt file was saved as a *.csv. The *csv can then be used outside of the ArcGIS 9.3 environment to generate trackline data, if neeed.
    Date: 06-Apr-2017 (process 7 of 7)
    The online links to the data were updated to reflect the new server hosting the data. Additionally, other small edits could be made to the metadata, such as modifying http to https where appropriate. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Argue, Denise M., Kiah, Richard G., Denny, Jane F., Deacon, Jeffrey R., Danforth, William W., Johnston, Craig M., and Smagula, Amy P., 2007, Relation of Lake-Floor Characteristics to the Distribution of Variable Leaf Water-Milfoil in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005: Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5125, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

    Online Links:

    Danforth, William W., 1997, XSonar/ShowImage: A complete system for rapid sidescan-sonar processing and display: Open-File Report 97-686, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    Attributes relay information about the object ID (FID), Esri Object ID (polyline), length of tracklines (m), line number, type of sonar system used to acquire data, the frequency of the sonar system, swath width of the sonar system, USGS unique cruise identification, the date of acquisition and the Julian Day. Attributes were checked for consistency and for accuracy of descriptive information.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigation was acquired with Wide Area Augmentation System ( WAAS), which is accurate to + or - 1 to 2 meters, horizontally. Navigation data were acquired with a LGBX Pro receiver and sent directly to the sidescan-sonar acquisition software, L3-Klein Associates, SonarPro. The LGBX Pro received WAAS positions from an antenna located on the port, aft roof of the cabin. The sidescan-sonar towfish was towed at a shallow depth, close to the lake surface due to the shallow waters of the survey area. Layback was measured upon deployment of the towfish. The following offsets are measured prior to deployment of the sidescan-sonar towfish and entered into SonarPro: height of the block, offset from DGPS (WAAS) antenna to the block, and height of the DGPS antenna above the waterline. Considering errors in measuring towfish layback, as well as accuracy of WAAS, horizontal accuracy of the sidescan-sonar data are conservatively assumed to be + or - 10 meters.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This shapefile contains lines 43 - 112 of sidescan-sonar data collected on JD 207(07/26/2005) during USGS field activity 2005-004-FA. Lines 43 - 112 were a 'rerun' of lines 1 - 42 to try to improve on the data quality as there were significant system errors and malfunctions during data collection on JD 206 (07/25/2005). Lines 1 - 42 are not included in this dataset. They were not used for interpretative purposes. Lines 43 - 112 were used to generate the sidescan-sonar mosaic.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All sidescan-sonar data were collected during USGS cruise 2005-004-FA using a Klein system 3000 sidescan-sonar system. Quality control was conducted during processing of the data. Any spurious data or artifacts were removed or minimized.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the source of this information.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The file 2005-004-FA_sonartrk.zip contains the shapefile 2005-004-FA_sonartrk.shp and other files associated with the shapefile. In addition to the shapefile, the zip file also contains the data in CSV format (2005-004-FA_sonartrk.csv), the browse graphic (2005-004-FA_sonartrk.jpg) and the FGDC CSDGM metadata in the following formats: XML, HTML, FAQ and text.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in Esri shapefile format. The zip file also contains associated metadata. The user must have ArcGIS or ArcView 3.0 or greater software to read and process the data file. In lieu of ArcView or ArcGIS, the user may utilize another GIS application package capable of importing the data. A free data viewer, ArcGIS Explorer, capable of displaying the data is available from Esri at www.esri.com.

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 06-Apr-2017
Metadata author:
Jane F. Denny
U.S. Geological Survey
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, Massachusetts

508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

Generated by mp version 2.9.36 on Thu Apr 06 13:28:42 2017