JPEG images of bottom samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (JPEG Images)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
JPEG images of bottom samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (JPEG Images)
Abstract:
In freshwater bodies of New Hampshire, the most problematic aquatic invasive plant species is Myriophyllum heterophyllum or variable leaf water-milfoil. Once established, variable leaf water-milfoil forms dense beds that can alter the limnologic characteristics of a waterbody, impacting natural lacustrine communities and their habitats. Variable leaf water-milfoil infestations also disrupt recreational uses of waterbodies and have negatively affected swimming, boating, fishing, and property values in and around several lakes and ponds in New Hampshire.
In 1965, Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee became the first waterbody in New Hampshire where variable leaf water-milfoil was observed. Variable leaf water-milfoil is native to the Southeastern and Midwestern areas of the United States where more alkaline waters appear to limit the growth of this plant. Outside its native range, however, it adapts well to the relatively acidic, low-alkalinity, and nutrient-poor conditions of oligotrophic lakes and bays similar to Moultonborough Bay.
In 2005, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the distribution (presence and density) of variable leaf water-milfoil in Moultonborough Bay. This study utilized geophysical systems and conventional water-quality measurements to identify lake-floor environments that may provide suitable habitat for the establishment and growth of variable leaf water-milfoil. The results of the study are intended to assist resource managers in federal and state agencies by providing methods for detecting variable leaf water-milfoil and for identifying areas susceptible to infestation. Ultimately, this information may lead to early detection, prevention, and more effective mitigation strategies.
Field activity information for this cruise is available on-line through the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/fan_info.php?fa=2005-004-FA.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2014, JPEG images of bottom samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005 (JPEG Images): data release DOI:10.5066/F71N7Z4H, U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Denny, J.F., Danforth, W.W., Worley, C.R., and Irwin, B.J., 2014, High-resolution geophysical and sample data collected in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire in 2005, USGS Field Activity 2005-004-FA: data release DOI:10.5066/F71N7Z4H, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.390840
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -71.359890
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.728250
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 43.712080
  3. What does it look like?
    https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2005-004-FA/data/imagery/2005-004-FA_photosm.jpg (JPEG)
    Thumbnail image of a bottom photograph collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 27-Jul-2005
    Ending_Date: 28-Jul-2005Currentness_Reference: ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set.
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x 2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

This data set includes the bottom photographs (JPEG images) collected within Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire during USGS field activity 2005-004-FA. The bottom photographs were collected to ground-truth the geophysical data collected and used to characterize the surficial sediment and bottom habitat of the lakefloor.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    none (source 1 of 1)
    U.S. Geological Survey, Unpublished Material, Sediment Textural Data.

    Type_of_Source_Media: online
    Source_Contribution:
    The Mini SEABOSS was designed specifically for the USGS Woods Hole Science Center's 26-foot research vessel Rafael. This system is equipped with two video cameras, a digital still camera, and a Van Veen grab sampler. This system, weighing approximately 200 lbs., can be used to depths up to 40 meters. The grab itself is raised and lowered with a 3/16-inch Aramid fiber winch-line with a breaking strength of 5,600 pounds. The davit is secured when the Mini SEABOSS is in the water. The electrical cable is on a spring-wound take-up reel with electrical slip rings that is mounted aft of the sampler. This arrangement protects the 0.38-in. multi-conductor cable and keeps the Mini SEABOSS correctly oriented with the boat. This multi-conductor cable enables communication between the ship's lab and the Mini SEABOSS system. The digital camera, a Minolta Dimage 7Hi, is mounted in a machined Delrin housing with a flat port and is set for 2560 x 1920 pixel images at the "fine" setting for compression. This allows the camera to be used for over 200 images with a 1 GB Compact Flash card without downloading. The system also has a 50 Watt/second flash unit powered by 8 AA batteries. Two battery-powered lasers are set 15 cm apart for scale measurements. The red laser dots can usually be seen in the photo depending on the bottom type and the distance to the sea floor. A third battery powered laser is positioned at an angle so that when it intersects the other lasers, the Mini SEABOSS is at the optimum height off the bottom for a still photograph (optimal height is generally 75 cm above the bottom). The camera is set to a manual focus and set to a default focus distance (50 cm) once the camera is powered up. The default focus distance is slightly less than the optimum height above the seafloor to account for optical distortion under water.
    Video images were collected at 40 sample locations and digital photographs were collected at 35 sample locations using the USGS Mini SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001). Mini SEABOSS stations were selected based on preliminary acoustic-backscatter mosaics, with the objective of characterizing broad areas of different backscatter intensity. With the Mini SEABOSS deployed, the research vessel was allowed to drift with occasional power from the vessel to control drift direction. Continuous video was collected over a total of 696 meters of lakefloor. Video drift position was derived from the HYPACK navigation files based on the start and end times of the drift. For some portions of the drift, there was no navigation, so the position was derived from the time and position stamp in the video at 30-s intervals. Latitude and Longitude for sample locations 1 and 8 were derived solely from the video as HYPACK was not recording.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: 2005 (process 1 of 4)
    Bottom photographs were collected with the mini SEABOSS (Blackwood and Parolski, 2001) at 35 sample stations in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005.
    This and all subsequent processing steps (unless otherwise noted) were conducted by Jane F. Denny. Person who carried out this activity:
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
    Date: 2005 (process 2 of 4)
    The digital images were recorded on a compact flash card within the camera. Digital images were downloaded to a local disk and stored with a naming convention based on the station location. For example, sta11.jpg, is a bottom photograph collected at station (i.e. sample location) 11. Generally, only one bottom photograph was collected at each sample location.
    Date: 2014 (process 3 of 4)
    The photo locations (2005-004-FA_photos.shp - see metadata for how the file was created on https://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/data/field-activity-data/2005-004-FA/) were exported from ArcMap 9.3.1 using XTools Pro 7.1 as a comma-delimited text file. The attributes chosen for export were: LONG, LAT, YEAR, PICNAME, GPSTIME. The text editor VI v 7.3 was used to edit the year to include the calendar day in the format YYYYMMDD appropriate for the particular image. A PYTHON script (jane_write_exif.py) was then run that incorporated this information, along with additional information, into the appropriate locations in the EXIF header of each JPEG images. The PYTHON script uses exiftool (version 8.4.7.0) to write the information to the image headers.
    The following tags were populated in the JPEG image headers. Information is duplicated in some tags. This was done because different software packages access different tags.
    GPS tags: The values populated are unique for each image and based on the information exported from the photo locations shapefile.
    GPSLatitudeRef
    GPSLatitude
    GPSLongitudeRef
    GPSLongitude
    GPSTimeStamp
    GSPDateStamp
    
    JPEG tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Comment: Photo from down-looking camera on the USGS SEABOSS deployed from the R/V Rafael
    during survey 2005-004-FA (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/operations/ia/public_ds_info.php?fa=2005-004-FA)
    
    
    EXIF tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    ImageDescription: Photograph of the lake floor in Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire from survey 2005-004-FA
    Artist: Jane Denny
    Copyright: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    
    
    
    IPTC tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Credit: U.S. Geological Survey
    Contact: WHSC_data_contact@usgs.gov
    Keywords: Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005-004-FA, SEABOSS, lake floor, USGS
    CopyrightNotice: Public Domain - please credit U.S. Geological Survey
    Caption-Abstract: Photograph of the lake floor in Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire from survey 2005-004-FA
    
    
    
    XMP tags: The tag is listed along with the information used to populate it - which is the same for every image.
    Caption: Photograph of the lake floor in Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire from survey 2005-004-FA.
    
    Person who carried out this activity:
    VeeAnn A. Cross
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
    Date: 06-Apr-2017 (process 4 of 4)
    The online links to the data were updated to reflect the new server hosting the data. Additionally, other small edits could be made to the metadata, such as modifying http to https where appropriate. The metadata date (but not the metadata creator) was edited to reflect the date of these changes. Person who carried out this activity:
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Attn: VeeAnn A. Cross
    Marine Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, MA

    508-548-8700 x2251 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    vatnipp@usgs.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Argue, Denise M., Kiah, Richard G., Denny, Jane F., Deacon, Jeffrey R., Danforth, William W., Johnston, Craig M., and Smagula, Amy P., 2007, Relation of Lake-Floor Characteristics to the Distribution of Variable Leaf Water-Milfoil in Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005: Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5125, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

    Online Links:

    Blackwood, D., and Parolski, K., 2001, Seabed observation and sampling system: Sea Technology v. 42, no. 2, p. 39-43, Sea Technology, Arlington, Virginia.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Navigation was acquired with Wide Area Augmentation System ( WAAS), which is accurate to + or - 1 to 2 meters, horizontally. Navigation data were acquired with a Communications Systems International (CSI), Inc. LGBX Pro receiver. The CSI LGBX Pro received positions from a WAAS antenna located on the port, aft roof of the R/V Rafael cabin. WAAS positions were recorded within HYPACK (www.hypack.com) navigation software. Offsets between the DGPS antenna and the mini-SEABOSS were not measured. The horizontal position of the mini-SEABOSS during sample collection is assumed to be +/- 10 meters at best, due to a lack of precise positional data at the time of sample recovery.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    Forty sample locations were occupied, however bottom photographs were not collected at sample locations 1, 2, 7B and 20 due to equipment problems. The digital camera, at these locations, was not operating properly and we were not able to successfully image the lakefloor with a digital image.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    All bottom photographs were collected with the mini-SEABOSS (SEABed Observation and Sampling System) by the U.S. Geological Survey within the Moultonborough Bay, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, 2005. Blackwood and Parolski, 2001

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. Government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey as the originator of the dataset.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Jane F. Denny
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Geologist
    384 Woods Hole Road
    Woods Hole, Massachusetts
    USA

    508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
    508-457-2310 (FAX)
    jdenny@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? The file 2005-004-FA_bottomphotos.zip contains the JPEG images of the sea floor bottom photographs. In addition to the bottom photographs, the zip file also contains the browse graphic (2005-004-FA_photosm.jpg) and the FGDC CSDGM metadata in the following formats: XML, HTML, FAQ and text.
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    Neither the U.S. Government, the Department of the Interior, nor the USGS, nor any of their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, make any warranty, express or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, nor represent that its use would not infringe on privately owned rights. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?
    This zip file contains data available in JPEG format. The zip file also contains associated metadata.

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-Apr-2017
Metadata author:
Jane F. Denny
U.S. Geological Survey
Geologist
384 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
USA

508-548-8700 x2311 (voice)
508-457-2310 (FAX)
jdenny@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

Generated by mp version 2.9.36 on Thu Apr 06 14:17:12 2017