Flooding

inundation of coastal areas by waves, tsunamis, extreme tides, or river discharge.
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Flooding extent polygons for modelled wave-driven water levels in Florida with and without projected coral reef degradation

This data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the State Florida (the Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys). There are 12 associated flood mask shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the current scenario (base) and each of the degradation scenarios (Mean Elevation and Mean Erosion).

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods for the State of Florida before and after Hurricanes Irma and Maria due to the storms' damage to the coral reefs

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the State Florida (the Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys). There are eight associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the pre-storm scenario (base) and the post-storm scenarios.

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico before and after Hurricanes Irma and Maria due to the storms' damage to the coral reefs

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. There are eight associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the pre-storm scenario (base) and the post-storm scenarios.

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BEWARE database: A Bayesian-based system to assess wave-driven flooding hazards on coral reef-lined coasts

A process-based wave-resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non-Hydrostatic, ‘XBNH’) was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a “Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in Reef Environments” (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and coral reef geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on reef-lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of reef hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic reef and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on ...

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Model parameter input files to compare wave-averaged versus wave-resolving XBeach coastal flooding models for coral reef-lined coasts

This data release includes the XBeach input data files used to evaluate the importance of explicitly modeling sea-swell waves for runup. This was examined using a 2D XBeach short wave-averaged (surfbeat, XB-SB) and a wave-resolving (non-hydrostatic, XB-NH) model of Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of Marshall Islands. Results show that explicitly modelling the sea-swell component (using XB-NH) provides a better approximation of the observed runup than XB-SB (which only models the time ...

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods for the State of Florida for current and potentially restored coral reefs

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the State Florida (the Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys). There are 16 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the current scenario (base) and each of the restoration scenarios (structural_25, structural_05, and ecological_25).

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for current and potentially restored coral reefs

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. There are 16 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the current scenario (base) and each of the restoration scenarios (structural_25, structural_05, and ecological_25).

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands for current and potentially restored coral reefs

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands. There are 16 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years), the current scenario (base) and each of the restoration scenarios (structural_25, structural_05, and ecological_25).

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hawaii_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Hawaii, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Hawaii, Hawaii

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kauai_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Kauai, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Kauai, Hawaii

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lanai_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Lanai, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Lanai, Hawaii

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maui_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Maui, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Maui, Hawaii

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molo_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Molokai, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Molokai, Hawaii

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oahu_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Oahu, Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Oahu, Hawaii

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sand_sfl - Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Sand Island (Oahu), Hawaii

Stream Flooding Hazard Intensity Level in the coastal zone of Sand Island (Oahu), Hawaii

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Projected flooding extents and depths based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the States of Hawaii and Florida, the Territories of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

This data release provides flooding extent polygons (flood masks) and depth values (flood points) based on wave-driven total water levels for 22 locations within the States of Hawaii and Florida, the Territories of Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. For each of the 22 locations there are eight associated flood mask polygons and flood depth point files: one for each four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100- ...

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Tidal Datums, Tidal Range, and Nuisance Flooding Levels for Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay

This U.S. Geological Survey data release provides data on spatial variations in tidal datums, tidal range, and nuisance flooding in Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Tidal datums are standard elevations that are defined based on average tidal water levels. Datums are used as references to measure local water levels and to delineate regions in coastal environments. Nuisance flooding refers to the sporadic inundation of low-lying coastal areas by the maximum tidal water levels during spring tides, especially ...

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Conductivity, temperature and depth time-series data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Time-series measurements of waves, currents, water levels, sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity, and water, air, and ground temperatures were collected in July through September 2011 in and around Arey Lagoon, near Barter Island, Alaska. Directional wave spectra, currents, water levels, salinity, and bottom and surface water temperatures were measured with a bottom-mounted 1MHz Nortek AWAC, HOBO temperature loggers, and a Solinst Levelogger in ~5m water depth offshore of Arey Island. Within Arey Lagoon, ...

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Current-velocity time-series data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Time-series measurements of waves, currents, water levels, sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity, and water, air, and ground temperatures were collected in July through September 2011 in and around Arey Lagoon, near Barter Island, Alaska. Directional wave spectra, currents, water levels, salinity, and bottom and surface water temperatures were measured with a bottom-mounted 1MHz Nortek AWAC, HOBO temperature loggers, and a Solinst Levelogger in ~5m water depth offshore of Arey Island. Within Arey Lagoon, ...

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Ground temperature time-series data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Time-series measurements of waves, currents, water levels, sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity, and water, air, and ground temperatures were collected in July through September 2011 in and around Arey Lagoon, near Barter Island, Alaska. Directional wave spectra, currents, water levels, salinity, and bottom and surface water temperatures were measured with a bottom-mounted 1MHz Nortek AWAC, HOBO temperature loggers, and a Solinst Levelogger in ~5m water depth offshore of Arey Island. Within Arey Lagoon, ...

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Sea-surface water temperature time-series data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Time-series measurements of waves, currents, water levels, sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity, and water, air, and ground temperatures were collected in July through September 2011 in and around Arey Lagoon, near Barter Island, Alaska. Directional wave spectra, currents, water levels, salinity, and bottom and surface water temperatures were measured with a bottom-mounted 1MHz Nortek AWAC, HOBO temperature loggers, and a Solinst Levelogger in ~5m water depth offshore of Arey Island. Within Arey Lagoon, ...

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Water level and velocity measurements from the 2012 University of Western Australia Fringing Reef Experiment (UWAFRE)

This data release contains water level and velocity measurements from wave runup experiments performed in a laboratory flume setting. Wave-driven water level variability (and runup at the shoreline) is a significant cause of coastal flooding induced by storms. Wave runup is challenging to predict, particularly along tropical coral reef-fringed coastlines due to the steep bathymetric profiles and large bottom roughness generated by reef organisms. The 2012 University of Western Australia Fringing Reef ...

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Seamless topo-bathy digital elevation model (DEM) of Arey Lagoon, Alaska

A seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model for an area around Arey Lagoon, Alaska created from a combination of lidar elevation data collected in 2009, single-beam bathymetric data collected in 2011, and NOS sounding data collected in 1948.

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Projected open water seasons using four global climate models for 2011 to 2100 fronting Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Estimated start date, end date, and duration of open water at a location fronting Barter Island, Alaska derived from projected sea ice extents in 4 global climate models: MIROC5, BCC-CSM1.1, INM-CM4, and GFDL-ESM2M. Starting and ending dates are when sea ice retreated or is projected to retreat offshore by more than 80 kilometers fronting Barter Island. Projected coastal storm events were derived by downscaling atmospheric conditions of the RCP 4.5 climate scenario with the MIROC5 global climate model (GCM) ...

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Hindcast (1981-2010) and projected (2011-2100) coastal storm events, including duration, wave conditions, and storm surges in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Numerically modeled ocean storm conditions of hindcast (1981-2010) and projected (2011-2100) storm events in the nearshore region of Arey Lagoon, Alaska. Storms were identified from time-series of dynamically downscaled deep-water wave conditions using WaveWatch3 (WW3) and nearshore storm surges using the Deltares Delft3D model. A storm was defined as having offshore water wave heights >= 2 meters (m) and storm surges >=0 m. The data in this file provide a listing of individual storm dates, storm duration, ...

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Physics-based numerical model simulations of wave propagation over and around theoretical atoll and island morphologies for sea-level rise scenarios

Schematic atoll models with varying theoretical morphologies were used to evaluate the relative control of individual morphological parameters on alongshore transport gradients. Here we present physics-based numerical SWAN model results of incident wave transformations for a range of atoll and island morphologies and sea-level rise scenarios. Model results are presented in NetCDF format, accompanied by a README text file that lists the parameters used in each model run. These data accompany the following ...

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Wave time-series data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Time-series measurements of waves, currents, water levels, sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity, and water, air, and ground temperatures were collected in July through September 2011 in and around Arey Lagoon, near Barter Island, Alaska. Directional wave spectra, currents, water levels, salinity, and bottom and surface water temperatures were measured with a bottom-mounted 1MHz Nortek AWAC, HOBO temperature loggers, and a Solinst Levelogger in ~5m water depth offshore of Arey Island. Within Arey Lagoon, ...

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Dynamically downscaled future wave projections from SWAN model results for the main Hawaiian Islands

Projected wave climate trends from WAVEWATCH3 model output were used as input for nearshore wave models (for example, SWAN) for the main Hawaiian Islands to derive data and statistical measures (mean and top 5 percent values) of wave height, wave period, and wave direction for the recent past (1996-2005) and future projections (2026-2045 and 2085-2100). Three-hourly global climate model (GCM) wind speed and wind direction output from four different GCMs provided by the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project ...

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HyCReWW database: A hybrid coral reef wave and water level metamodel

We developed the HyCReWW metamodel to predict wave run-up under a wide range of coral reef morphometric and offshore forcing characteristics. Due to the complexity and high dimensionality of the problem, we assumed an idealized one-dimensional reef profile, characterized by seven primary parameters. XBeach Non-Hydrostatic was chosen to create the synthetic dataset and Radial Basis Functions implemented in Matlab were chosen for interpolation. Results demonstrate the applicability of the metamodel to obtain ...

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Projected flood water depths on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Projected future wave-driven flooding depths on Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands for a range of climate-change scenarios. This study utilized field data to calibrate oceanographic and hydrogeologic models, which were then used with climate-change and sea-level rise projections to explore the effects of sea-level rise and wave-driven flooding on atoll islands and their freshwater resources. The overall objective of this effort, due to the large uncertainty in ...

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Modeled extreme total water levels along the U.S. west coast

This dataset contains information on the probabilities of storm-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 100-meter (m) section of the United States Pacific coast for return period storm scenarios. The analysis is based on a storm-impact scaling model that uses observations of beach morphology combined with sophisticated hydrodynamic models to predict how the coast will respond to the hydrodynamic forcing. Storm-induced water levels, due to both surge and waves, are compared to coastal ...

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Coral reef profiles for wave-runup prediction

This data release includes representative cluster profiles (RCPs) from a large (>24,000) selection of coral reef topobathymetric cross-shore profiles (Scott and others, 2020). We used statistics, machine learning, and numerical modelling to develop the set of RCPs, which can be used to accurately represent the shoreline hydrodynamics of a large variety of coral reef-lined coasts around the globe. In two stages, the data were reduced by clustering cross-shore profiles based on morphology and hydrodynamic ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for American Samoa (the islands of Tutuila, Ofu-Olosega, and Tau)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for American Samoa (the islands of Tutuila, Ofu-Olosega, and Tau). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of coral reefs. Flooding depth point data ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (the islands of Saipan and Tinian)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (the islands of Saipan and Tinian). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of coral reefs.

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the State Florida (the Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the State Florida (the Florida Peninsula and the Florida Keys). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of coral reefs. Flooding depth point data ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the Territory of Guam

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Territory of Guam. There are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of coral reefs. Flooding depth point data are also presented as a comma-separated value (.csv) ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the State of Hawaii (the islands of Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, and Oahu)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the State of Hawaii (the islands of Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, and Oahu). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each of four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the Territory of Puerto Rico (the islands of Culebra, Puerto Rico, and Vieques)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Territory of Puerto Rico (the islands of Culebra, Puerto Rico, and Vieques). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of coral reefs. Flooding ...

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Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (the islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (the islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, and Saint Thomas). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each four nearshore wave energy return periods (rp; 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-years) and both with (wrf) and without (worf) the presence of ...

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Single-beam bathymetry data collected in 2010 and 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Islands, Alaska

Single-beam bathymetry data were collected in 2010 and 2011 in the nearshore waters around Barter Island, Arey Island, and within Arey Lagoon, Alaska. Measurements were made from a small boat or dinghy using one of three systems: a Humminbird 898 SI Fish Finder with integrated GPS (2010 and 2011), an Ohmex Sonarmite BT integrated with a Trimble GeoHX series GPS (2011), or a Garmin Sounder with integrated GPS (2011). Each system collected single-beam water depth with accuracies better than 4 meters (m) ...

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Beach profile data collected in 2010 and 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Beach elevation profiles were measured along 29 shore-normal transects on and around Arey and Barter Islands, Alaska in August 2010 and July 2011. Profile data are available in a single comma-delimited file and a zip file including multiple .jpg images that show a visual representation of the individual profiles.

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Mean grain size of beach and seabed sediment samples collected in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska, July 2011

Sediment grab samples were collected on the barriers and nearby seabed on and around Arey and Barter Islands, Alaska in July 2011 and analyzed for mean grain size. 43 terrestrial grab samples were collected along 14 shore-normal beach transects (12 on Arey Island and 2 on the western spit of Barter Island) at the seaward water line, the berm crest or top of the island, and at the lagoon water line. 11 seabed samples were collected using a small pipe dredge deployed from a small boat; 2 in the vicinity of ...

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Thermokarst lake water temperature and salinity data collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska

Thermokarst lake water temperature and salinity data were collected in 2011 in the vicinity of Arey Lagoon and Barter Island, Alaska. Pond temperatures and salinity (conductivity) were measured along two transects traversing across a wet sedge area. A hand-held YSI 556 MPS (plus or minus 0.5 percent accuracy) with a cable-attached instrument probe was placed in 10-15 cm of water within 1 m of each of the pond edges and allowed to equilibrate, and readings were recorded manually. In all, 35 ponds were ...

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